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How To Double Or Triple The Effectiveness Of Your Print Media

Oprah Winfrey publishes a remarkably successful magazine dedicated to the home environment. It is titled O AT HOME. It's successful because women have a passion for creating a beautiful home. They do not have a passion for sofas, loveseats and mattress sets. No payments until 2011 does not set their hearts aflutter. Label headlines and copy, and print ads that have confusing, glaring graphics won't hold their attention. Oprah succeeds because she hires top writers and art directors who do not destroy the story with graphics that make the copy unreadable. Invest a few bucks on a copy of Oprah's magazine and get a lesson in how to use print mes First of all, study the cover of Oprah's O AT HOME magazine. The writers and the editors know that the cover must work or they will soon be out of a job. So every cover is loaded with benefit headlines. The benefit headlines have one primary purpose to get the reader to open the magazine and keep reading. This is close to what a headline and the...

Preface To First Edition

The sources of information from which this book has been derived are examination of inventories and contemporary records, all available newspapers, works on the subjects of furniture, architecture, and interior wood-work by English, French, German, Italian, and American writers, general and commercial histories, books on manners and customs, ancient dictionaries, cabinet-makers' books of design, ancient and modern, and examination of specimens of furniture, both colonial and foreign.

Style in furniture

Some writers would have us believe that Napoleon was never known to take things easily but I am in a position to present conclusive proof to the contrary. Endowed with almost superhuman energy, displaying a terrible capacity for work, turning night into day, and all but killing those who served under him by his constant demands upon their physical endurance, there came periods when even he could support the strain no longer, and had to seek bodily repose, though whether his mind ever enjoyed immunity from activity is open to question. But his attitude even when temporarily resting was characteristic of the really restless disposition of the man when settled down in either chair or sofa, or any other form of seat furnished with arms, over one or the other of those arms one of the imperial legs would be thrown sooner or later, if it was in any way possible to get it there. So strong was this idiosyncrasy with him that a special seat wras made it is said from his own design to enable him...

Preparation Of Surfaces

Glues can be coloured to match the wood, using flake-white for light-coloured woods, and gas-black, mineral-earth colours or aniline dyes for ebony, blackwood, etc. Alternatively, Salisbury or rabbit skin glue, often employed in water gilding and gesso-work, can be used for delicately coloured inlays, while PVA emulsion gives a translucent glue-line. A method often adopted by the writer in gluing up light-coloured woods cherry, sycamore, holly. etc. was to rub the edges of the joints with ordinary blackboard chalk before applying the glue, and this worked well with highly absorbent butt-jointed veneers. Hide glue will

Serpentinefronted tallboy

This tallboy (459) was primarily designed as a contemporary interpretation of a traditional form and has been on permanent exhibition since first made in 1951. Figure 460 1 shows the elevation and 460 2, 3 the side sectional elevation. As can be seen the tallboy is composed of two separate carcass units with attached top and plinth stool. Carcass top and sides are 3 4 in (19 mm) finish first-quality solid African mahogany cut from flat planks over 4 ft (121 cm) wide sub tops, bases and solid divisions between drawers are 5 8 in (16 mm) selected western hemlock lipped with mahogany while the 3 4 in (19 mm) finish serpentine drawer fronts were made up from nin 32 in (2 mm) gaboon constructional veneers pressed between male and female formers forms in a screw-press and veneered with striped sapelewood. Drawer sides are 5 16 in (8 mm) English oak, flush drawer bottoms and backs 5 16 in (8 mm) English cedar, also the panelled backs with 2 in (50 mm) by 5 8 in (16 mm) stiles, rails and...

Turned Spindleback Chair

Colonial Table Chair Styles

A later form of the Carver chair in the possession of the writer is shown in Figure 411. The turnings are smaller and are vase-shaped and the spindles and rails are lighter. Many of these chairs are found with legs cut down and the knobs on the front post cut off, but this piece is in its original cond i.ion except that the feet are probably worn off about a quarter to one-half inch. Figure 414 shows another chair of the Carver type, which is known as a spinning-chair. It stands high from the Hoor, as high as a child's high chair, but it is full size and is a side instead of an arm chair. The back is in the conventional form of the Carver chairs, but the spindles are much more elaborately turned and arc in the form shown on the chair in the succeeding figure. The finials are also more intricately turned. The chair is in the possession of the writer.

Second Type Of Cane Chairs

Scroll Foot

As has been stated above, the second type of cane chair consists of those in which the carved cresting extends over the stiles of the back. These are later than the first type, not having appeared much before 1685. The writer has never seen a specimen which had the simple Flemish scroll foot and only very rarely one which used that scroll n the design. They are occasionally found, however, with the elaborated scroll foot and the scroll foot shown on the chair illustrated in Figure 457. It is most generally found with a simple scroll or Spanish scroll foot. 1 he form of constiuction s faulty, as the back is very much weakened by having the cresting dowelled ato the stiles instead of being mortised and tenoned into it. Figure 474 is of a later date, but the cresting and front stretcher are in the same design as that shown in F igure 471. The upper frame of the cane is pierced so as to appear to be separate from the cresting and is in the same Gothic form as that shown in the preceding...

First Type Of Cane Chairs

Spanish Colonial Furniture

Figure 449 shows an example of a little later date. It will be seen that the Flemish scroll predominates. The sides of the frame for the cane are each carved in two Flemish scrolls, slit, and forming two volutes at one end a conventional fleur-de-lis separates the Flemish scrolls. A similar design is carved on the front stretcher and the legs are in the form of the simple Flemish scroll. The cresting is composed of foliated C scrolls. This chair is the property of the writer. posed to have belonged to Judge Samuel Sewall, of witchcraft fame, and is now in the possession of the writer. missing. 'I he iinials are n the form of acorns. The front stretcher is carved in a scroll design suggesting the Flemish scroll .'he legs are in the form of a Flemish scroll with an additional out-turn -ig scroll above. The two last-mentioned chairs belong to the writer. Figure 459, the property of the writer, illustrates a further diffeung type trom those under discussion. The only carv ing is on the...

XviiiList Of Illustrations

Figure 403 shows a short form, the property of Mr. H. W. Erving, which is made of American oak. It is strongly built, with legs slightly raked, and the heavy stiles and bracing are mortised and tenoned and fastened with draw-bore pins in the method usually employed in oak pieces. American short forms are scarce, and the writer has never seen an American long form, although the English ones arc fairly common.

The End Of Knickerbocker New York

Had remained so important an element in the eighteenth-century town had hung about the city without occasioning any self-conscious attention or comment. It remained for a brilliant little group of young writers to utilize these traditions in their literary efforts and thus to preside in a twofold capacity both as registrars of an epoch which was dying and as heralds of a new era which was just begun. These youthful spirits, of whom Irving was the leader, contributed their share to the social life and literary activities of the town. Known as the Knickerbocker group, these young men divided their time between the city and a charming bachelor's hall, an old country home on the Passaic not far from Newark, celebrated in the Salmagundi papers as Cockloft Hall. Of this lively group Mr. Hamilton Wright Mabie has drawn a vividly sympathetic picture in his little book, The Writers of Knickerbocker New York. During Irving's protracted sojourn abroad, the other members of this group of his...

Secret double lap dovetails

Table Socket Box Drawing

Dovetails need not necessarily follow the traditional pattern, and the writer has used other forms, of which 155 5 is an example. The dovetail is cut and trimmed and marked round for the socket in the end grain. Holding power is as good if not better than the usual form of dovetail, providing the width of the tail is not too great.

The Renaissance in Italy

It is difficult to say with any certainty when the first commencement of a new era actually takes place, but there is an incident related in Michael Bryan's biographical notice of Leonardo da Vinci which gives us an approximate date. Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, had appointed this great master Director of Painting and Architecture in his academy in 1494, and, says Bryan, who obtained his information from contemporary writers, Leonardo no sooner entered on his office, than he banished all the Gothic principles established by his predecessor, Michelino, and introduced the beautiful simplicity and purity of the Grecian and Roman styles.

Gillows of Lancaster and London

HE necessity for devoting a considerable amount of space to the chronicles of the house of Gillow would not have been so urgent were it not necessary to enter into a mass of detail regarding the many inaccurate statements which have been made regarding the old firm. It is hardly fair to blame any person, or persons, in particular, for the genesis and propagation of these fables it is, perhaps, with a house of business more than two centuries old, in the natural order of things that they should have arisen. The cause is possibly threefold. In the first place, there is always a tendency to invest an old business with a certain amount of oral romance, which insensibly grows when it is handed down through several generations secondly, it is difficult to imagine a furniture maker of size, if not of repute, existing throughout the eighteenth century without reflecting some of the glories, if not coming into actual association with such famous craftsmen and designers as Chippendale, Adam,...

Types Of Baluster Turning Of The Seventeenth And Early Eighteenth Centuries

The diagram, Fig. 180, mal be of some little service in tracing this evolution of the turned leg on seventeenth-century tables. A writer of an illustrated book, such as this, who has many photographs before him, a far greater number than it is possible to reproduce in a work of this size, has still the advantage over his readers of being able to trace developments from example to example, which, although evident to him on comparison, cannot be stated other than empirically without the use of lavish illustration to prove his statements, which is here impossible. These twelve examples are not actual copies from existing tables the idea has been rather to include several variations in the one type, in order to explain, pictorially, the evolution of form. Thus A must be taken as an example which includes all the bulbous-leg forms of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, where the squares above and below are pared down, almost disproportionately, in order to...

Drawer and tray construction

Thickness, and unless the bottom happens to be solid cedar as in 238 14 for moth-proofing, plywood is invariably used which can be glued all round if necessary. Drawer fronts are usually standardized at 3 4 in (19 mm) thick they can be thicker at 7 8 in (22 mm), but should not be under 3 4 in (19 mm) for good work. In factory production the drawers are made slightly slack in the openings to save labour in fitting, which can be a costly business if individually done. There is, however, nothing to equal a wellmade hand-fitted drawer, for it will continue to slide like silk, giving satisfaction to its owner over many years. A good test is whether the act of shutting one drawer puffs out all the others in the carcass, and although this can be cured very easily by boring a few holes in the back of the carcass to relieve the air pressure, the writer has yet to meet a proud owner who would allow this to be done.

Classic American Furniture

Picture Editor Writers Jon Arno is a consultant, cabinetmaker, and freelance writer who lives in Troy, Michigan. He conducts seminars on wood identification and early American furniture design, and is the author of The Woodworkers Visual Handbook, published by Rodale Press.

Pressure Veneering With Resin Glues

Of the face veneers, grooved for loose tongues and each section veneered and then assembled. The process is simple enough and highly effective, but the grooving must be very accurately cut if the veneered surfaces are to line up. Failing any kind of press large areas can be satisfactorily veneered with nothing more elaborate than heavy cross-bearers and sash-cramps as in caul veneering, but some local blistering must be expected which, incidentally, is not as difficult to lay as some writers would make out. A simple way of checking that the cross-bearers are exerting full pressure in the centre of the panel is to slip tags of newspaper under the bearers at intervals. A slight pull on the tags will disclose whether the pressure is uniform throughout.

Surface decoration and finish

Painting The decoration of furniture by painting is divided between that with painted ornament on a timber ground and that with an all-over painted ground which is then decorated. The latter process was usually confined to cheaper woods and is often called japanning by contemporary writers a particular type was called pen-work. This was an imitation of etching which was made by first japanning the furniture black and then painting the design in white japan. Following this was the final process of adding line work with Indian ink and a pen.

Furniture Of The Italian Renaissance

The arrangement of furniture was greatly altered. Chairs and chests were no longer placed stiffly against the walls. According to one old writer the sixteenth century loosened the furniture from the side of the room, and distributed it here and there in the manner agreeable to modern taste. With its changed position came a change in the construction and character of each article. The cabinet became a cabinet in the modern meaning of the word. It was no longer a press or a cupboard. The table lost its severe lines and plain surfaces, and developed into an ornamental piece of furniture. Wood-carvers, as if to atone for past neglect, lavished their highest skill upon it. The chair was completely transformed. It refused to be classified under one or two heads. There was the chair for the hall, the dining-room, and the bedchamber. It was imposing, simple, massive, or graceful, as the occasion demanded The upholstered seat was introduced during this period. Hitherto chair cushions were...

Handles for glass doors

Cheaper doors have oblong finger-grips of about 1 8 in (3 mm) thickness glass cemented to the plate (237 2), but undoubtedly the better method is a cut finger-grip (237 1) which is run in with a grinding-wheel. Alternatively, thin sections of wood, preferably built up of several sheets of veneer to overcome shrinkage, can be glued to the glass with Araldite cement (237 3, 4), and in the writer's experience have proved satisfactory in use, although obviously they will not stand hard knocks.

Boring Socketsdowel Holes

Any expedient should be adopted to ensure truly vertical boring of the sockets. If done by hand, using a Russell Jenning's pattern dowel-bit in a bit- or arm-brace, help should be enlisted in sighting for the upright. Drilling at an angle always presents problems, for the wings of the bit tend to follow the grain, and an expedient adopted in the writer's own workshops for precision compound angle drilling was to fix the work either horizontally or vertically, thread the spindle of a 1 3 hp (0.25 kW) electric motor for a 1 2 in (12.5 mm) capacity Jacob's chuck (or use a hand drill), mount the motor on a baseboard running between wood guide rails securely fixed at the correct compound angle, and feed the motorized bit forward to the correct socket

The Early Colonies

In considering anything in the paSt we should never relax in our attention to dates. Even alone they give us much information, and a greater observation of them would have saved writers many assertions, on their face absurd. In the present instance they will inStantly make us see how exceedingly new was our new land at this period.

The Louisquatorze

The brief discussion of the few French styles with which 1 have elected to deal in these pages must be prefaced by a word or two of explanation, which, I sincerely trust, will be most carefully read and noted by all who may be disposed to regard my endeavours from the critical point of view. It has been explained fully in the introduction that, in preparing this chapter and the three which follow, it has not for one moment been my intention to attempt to present anything in the least approaching a full and complete history of the French work we are now about to pass in review to do so within the comparatively narrow limits imposed is altogether out of the question. Indeed, to each individual style many volumes might be, nay, have been, devoted by other and more able writers, with whose productions I do not propose to enter into competition. The introduction of French work at all in a treatise the main object of which is to convey a knowledge of style in English furniture may at the...

The Louisqu Atorze

The reign was, above all things, spectacular and, according to one of the greatest French writers The brilliant display . . . afforded some compensation in those times, thanks to the kindly feelings of the people and to the traditions of deep devotion to their sovereigns, for the enormous expenses charged upon the taxes. Mazarin had said 1 Let them sing, provided they pay' while Louis XIV.'s remark was 'Let them look Sight had replaced the voice the people could still look, but they could no longer sing.


Accustomed to associate them with one another, and regard them almost as an inseparable triad of old masters, working together with but one idea, or set of ideas, and in perfect harmony. As has already been noted in the preceding chapter, some writers even go so far as to throw the mantle of the first over the other two, as well as over a great many lesser lights, a proceeding to which I am quite sure Chippendale himself, vain as he was, would never have consented. Against such a course I have already entered a strong, if not indignant, protest deeming it necessary owing to the fact that the practice is steadily growing, under the encouragement and through the example of many who ought to know better but do not. Everything possible, therefore, should be done towards the correction of this error, and to prevent its perpetuation.

Planing Surfacing

Either the fore- or jack-plane is used for the first rough levelling, the try-plane for true levelling and the finely set smoothing-plane for final surfacing. Contrary to the practice recommended by some writers, the cutting edges of the irons should be square and not ground convex, although the jack-plane iron can have the corners dubbed over to prevent digging in. The set of the back iron should be adjusted to the depth of the cut required and the relative hardness or softness of the wood, for its sole function is to support the cutting iron and break up the chip, and therefore it can be set back as much as 1 16 in (1.5 mm) for mild softwoods, but perhaps only 1 64 (0.5 mm) for hardwoods. The projection of the cutting iron also depends on the nature of the board it


The distinction between a press and a cupboard was in the beginning clearly defined. The cupboard was made without doors and was scarcely more than a shelf on a trestle. In the fifteenth century the cupboard, the press, and the armoire were more nearly alike. The significance of the word armoire is somewhat obscure, and one upon which, writers on furniture are not agreed. Frederick Roe, in his book, Ancient Coffers and Cabinets, suggests that the original purpose of the piece of furniture thus designated, was to hold armor. Many of the finest baronial halls of England and Scotland were built in part during the reign of Edward III. Savoy Castle on the Thames, erected by the earl of Richmond, in 1245, was remodeled a century later by the first duke of Lancaster who spent a fortune on it. Here, after the battle of Poitiers, resided the captive ' king, John of France, here came on many occasions that idol of the people, the Black Prince, and here Chaucer lived for a year as the guest of...

Choice Of Grits

For all preparatory sanding and levelling off an 80 grit firm-backed cabinet-paper is suitable, and coarse-grained woods such as oak or teak rarely require any finer treatment. For close-grained woods the first coarse sanding should be followed up with a 120 grit finishing paper, and finely veneered surfaces with 180 grit which can be used with a circular movement over mitred corners, etc. For the most delicate work and for easing down polishes a 240 grit can be used. The foregoing are. of course, only suggestions based on the practical experience of the writer, and as individual touches differ other workers may prefer coarser or finer papers. For comparable results with orbital sanders the grits can be coarser, i.e. 60 grit for preparatory work, followed up by 100 grit, and 150 grit if necessary.

The Pomp Ei An

The art of the Pompeian was, as we all know, the Greek art after the Asiatic had debased it not that of the ancient dweller by the Egean Sea, but the Greek of Magna Graecia, who brought his arts and pleasures into Italy, and sapped the Roman power by means of them. Pliny complained of its period, saying that a man now cares nothing for art, provided he has his walls well covered with purple or dragon's-blood from India. Yet, enfeebled by its rank blossoming as it may have been, it is doubtful if many of us can improve it and if a millionnaire is going to live a sybaritic, self-indulgent life of pleasure, he could not express his determination better than by furnishing his villa in the Pompeian. But such as the art was in its day, it made its way everywhere, says a brilliant writer it illuminated, it gladdened, it perfumed everything. It did not stand either outside of or above ordinary life it was the soul and the delight of life in a word, it penetrated it, and was penetrated by it...

Call To Action

And their sales consultants to help them communicate better with customers and increase sales and profits. Margarett is a Writer and Professional Speaker, and the President of The DeGangi Group and The DeGangi School of Interior Decoration, with both on sight and on-line courses in Interior Decorating, Marketing, and Redesign. For almost 20 years she has helped individual and managed business owners in the interior fashions and decorating industries to earn more while fully enjoying the process.

Border crossbandings

Crossbanding Table Edge

Alongside, and the crossband then cut, fitted and laid. If the crossband is fairly narrow the separate pieces cut from the veneer sheet can be rubbed glued in position and then taped, or cellulose tape can be used with resin glues as it has a certain degree of elasticity and can be stretched tight to give sufficient pressure (289). Press-work will either call for dry fitting of the whole surface securely taped together and laid in one operation, or two or more pressings of central veneer, inlay banding and cross-banding. A method often adopted by the writer for this type of work was to press the centre first, trim back, dry fit both banding and crossbanding with cellulose tape, leaving the straight joints untaped, and then fold back the bandings with the tapes acting as hinges, glue the groundwork substrate, tape the straight joints and press. This method is, of course, not possible with curved bandings, and the cellulose tape cannot be used with animal glues as it will not stick to...

Roundabout Chairs

English Comb Back Windsor Chair Info

Wsix legs, which are turned and terminate in plain feet. Wheel chairs are very uncommon. They are probably of Eastern origin, for the one n the frontispiece, which s the property of the writer, has bamboo pegs and the cane is very line, after the Eastern fashion. The writer Figure 531 shows an interesting slipper-chair of the fan-back type, the property of the writer. The seat is but fourteen mches high, while the back s of the regular height. The turnings are unusually large and the front legs terminate in Dutch feet, a most unusual feature for American Windsors. a similar drawer is under the table. In front, under the table, is a candle slide which, when closed, locks the drawer. 1 s piece is n the writer's possession and at one Time belonged to the first Congregational minister of Chesterfield, Massachusetts, and was not new n 1790. Such a piece may have been referred

Ancient Sources

The only extensive extant attempt on the part of an ancient author to impart literary information in regard to furniture was made by the Greek lexicographer Pollux, who lived in the second century A. D. In his subject dictionary, embracing many phases of public and private life, is a collection of words and quotations from earlier writers apropos of beds and their furnishings.1 These follow one another with few explanations, and their meanings are in many cases obscure. Explicit and detailed definitions after the manner of a Century Dictionary did not enter into Pollux's conception of his task. In the treatise on the Latin language by Varro (116-27 B. C.),a parts of which are preserved, are some fantastic ideas about the derivations of words referring to beds. Only the late lexicographers Isidorus (seventh century A. D.), Suidas (tenth century A. D.), and those followed by Stephanus give proper definitions. Their opinions are often helpful, especially when they support them by...

Sefacs And Prfacse

No writer 011 the subject appears to have dealt with this question of origin at all, as, at first sight, there appears to be little or no data to commence with. Although there is every reason to suppose, for example, that some proportion of the furniture made in Cheshire would remain in its place of origin, yet, when we have to consider a period of from two to three hundred years, this amount would be so likely to be augmented by the productions of other counties, or diminished by removal or breakage, that it becomes a nice point, at the present da T, at least with secular furniture, to distinguish the indigenous from the imported specimens.


A point has now been reached at which our task must be brought to its natural conclusion for although many collectors, and others interested in the subject, have invited the writer's attention to numerous descriptions and examples, from an examination of which much information could, without doubt, be obtained, still, the exigencies of a busy life, and the limits of a single volume of moderate dimensions, forbid the attempt to add to a story which, it is feared, may perhaps have already overtaxed the reader's patience. As has already been stated in the preface, this book is not intended to be a guide to collecting, or furnishing nevertheless, it is possible that, in the course of recording some of the changes which have taken place in designs and fashions, and of bringing into notice, here and there, the opinions of those who have thought and written upon the subject, some indirect assistance may have been given in both these directions. If this should be the case, and if an increased...

Plastic Inlays

A method of inlaying wood, metal and other hard materials in a groundwork substrate of suitably coloured polyester resin, first developed by William Mitchell at the Royal College of Art in London, is illustrated in the coffee-table shown in 305. The table, which was one of a series designed by the writer especially for this inlay, had the wood top inset 3 16 in (5 mm) in the yew framing. Cross-sections of various short ends of wood in the workshop laburnum, Indian laurel, acacia, yew, grey sycamore, oak, brown oak and rosewood were then sawn 1 4 in (6 mm) thick, broken up at random, spaced out on the ground substrate and anchored with a little of the polyester resin used. A mix was then made up of resin, accelerator, hardener, and thixotropic medium, which allows a build up without creep or slide, coloured pale green with polyester pigments and poured over the assembly, working it into the gaps with a pointed stick. After hardening, the surface was levelled off flush with scrapers and...

Traditional legs

Various other traditional leg shapes are shown in 198. Figure 198 1 is the plain turned Jacobean leg 198 2 shows the twist, both of which were a feature of oak-work. Part of the twist (198 2) can be done on a slow-running lathe, but the normal procedure in handwork is to turn a cylinder to contain the twist and, while it it still in the lathe, wrap a piece of string tightly round it, spiral fashion. A pencil is then drawn along the string and the spiral sawn down just short of its greatest depth with shallow cuts either side. The hollowing is then done with suitable gouges and rasps. A typical inverted cup leg of the Walnut period is shown in 198 3 built up of sections to save wood, with the spigot ends in the thinner sections entering suitable holes in the thicker alternatively side pieces can be glued on to a central shaft to form the cup, but the differing grain patterns will show. Figure 198 4 is the Flemish Scroll leg sawn out of the solid and cross veneered, and 198 5 the hock...

Machine costs

Assuming that the average use of the sawbench is 20 hours a week for 50 weeks in the year, then the hourly rate will be 210 (the annual cost) (20 X 50), exclusive of the machinist's wages. If the use is only 10 hours per week then the hourly rate will be doubled, or, if more, reduced accordingly. Where, however, the machine or machines are only used intermittently and by several craftsmen instead of one particular machinist, which is more often than not the usual practice in small workshops, then it may be difficult or impossible to keep accurate records, and the only method which can be adopted is to value the machines as above, and to include the total costs of all machines, not including craftsmen's wages, in workshop overheads. The latter method was used by the writer in his own workshops, and worked reasonably well over a number of years.

Miscellaneous planes

The traditional wooden skew rebate-plane with single iron set at an angle to give a shearing cut. Figure 59 4 shows the standard toothing-plane (see Veneering, etc. Chapter 32) in which a series of corrugations in the iron scores the surface of the wood. It is used for keying the groundwork preparatory to veneering with hide glue, and for levelling bumpy veneers, etc. Mention must also be made of the incomparable Norris planes, smooth-, jack- and low-angled mitre- or piano-finishers' plane. They are no longer manufactured, but second-hand planes in good condition command high prices and the writer counts them among his most prized possessions, not for any sentimental reason but because they happen to do their job extremely well. For the final surfacing of really difficult woods ebony, East Indian satinwood, etc. they are excellent, and no doubt the secret lies in the extra stout iron of first-class steel and the heavy and sturdy body which always seems to hug the wood. Before quantity...