World War Ebooks Catalog
The range of finishes has increased enormously over the century. French polish and wax finishes remained popular during the early part of the century but after the First World War they were gradually replaced by nitro-cel-lulose lacquers. These lacquers, developed from the dopes used on aircraft frames, produced a quick-drying finish that was more resistant than French polish to heat and water. They could also be applied by spray gun. Postwar synthetic lacquers including acid catalysed urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formalde-hyde, polyurethane and polyester (all with varying properties) have been developed for special applications. Oiled finishes were popular on teak and rosewood furniture.
Europe from the Seventeenth Century to World War 1, W.W. Norton Crampton, C. (1972) Canework, Dryad Danssy, M. (1979) Antiques Professional Secrets for the of Master Craftsman Publications Jaro, M. (1983) The technological and analytical examination of metal threads on old textiles conservation-restoration of church textiles and painted flags, Investigation of Museum Objects and Materials Used in Conservation-Restoration, Veszprem, Hungary 2-10 July, National Centre of Museums, Budapest, pp. 253-64 Jobe, B. (1987) The Boston upholstery trade, in E.S. Cooke Jr (ed.), Upholstery in America and Europe from the Seventeenth Century to World War 1, W.W. Norton Johnson, K., Elton Barratt, O. and Butcher, M. (1990) Chair
Lacquer After World War I, there was a great movement to improve the manufacture of furniture improve it, that is, from the viewpoint of the maker. Before the war. furniture assembly lines had been developed. But in the five to ten years after the war. the process was speeded up. lacquer (an offshoot of ammunitions manufacture in World War I) and later of lacquer that could be sprayed on. These products cut the long drying times needed for earlier finishing materials. As a result, most of the furniture made after the mid-1920s was finished in lacquer.
The rubber hydrocarbon is synthesized by a wide range of plants, most of which are found in wet tropical areas. Three important botanical families cultivated for the product are the Apocynaceae, Artocarpaceae and Euphor-biaceae. The material was first introduced to Europe in 1735 but was not much exploited until the nineteenth century. The natural ther-moplasticity of rubber is overcome by a process called vulcanization. Vulcanization, the modification of rubber latex by sulphur and heat, is used to improve the resilience and strength of rubber and to produce a hard rubber product by producing sulphide links between rubber molecules (see Blank, 1989). The process was discovered in 1839 by Goodyear and patented in 1843 by Hancock and in 1844 by Goodyear. In 1929 the Dunlop Rubber Co. patented latex foam - 'sponge rubber'. Shortages caused by supply difficulties during the Second World War increased research, leading to synthetic latex developed by Pirelli and others. The properties of...
The complicated story of the rise of modern furniture can only be hinted at here. Artistic movements including Cubism, De Stijl, Constructivism, Expressionism and Futurism have had degrees of influence on furniture design. However, architects who designed furniture for specific interiors, including Lutyens, Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright and Rietveld (to name a few), produced icons of modern design that often have little relation to the productions of the major furniture factories but are symbolic of the twentieth century. After the First World War the fashionable Art Deco style was adopted for commercial as well as high-style furniture. The work of the French designers Jean Dunand, Pierre During the Second World War the inevitable shortages meant that there was a curtailing of decoration, and the Utility scheme was introduced into Britain in 1942. The need to conserve materials resulted in a stark simplicity that was a precursor of contemporary modernism. After...
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