ri-aurp pla*s l'/ew or face n?om under 5f de

Qrhír"?' 3£? tllmp í^fSH " [hí K1«1"

Wrh*r—d* Oíd PTHufc ra llitl» Jj.Lbn rhí jf. ipc.

IILEE r fie. í. ÍIOE AND UNOER VI[W 7hh |tpw| rlfj.l,- ha-Vi thi bmi rftqotjh if Hi 1-r.LC- Lht iidú at [hi r'ini Ir li taYtMcd i lh i c iJn> ÉHlftf.

thiekm:s>, and a Is cut to Rccgpiñedatc El.

Befare lJiís is done, however, the actual cutter should ¡x- Ki iiiciid lo l] m- required aiifilr aSd SlscctJ m poftitkm. J[ jEuntld lie adjusted n that H pn>. jecls ftwn 1 pt facc the íEitíElifSL anu unit, 1 'hfo gfrej. ftc |XKiition of di* briE, a tttpofal*>ii[ ^ in, E>ein# allowed far the Hitfuthr It ifescrewcd on thcjcrewa liriiiK well jAHmtcmMk}, and levelled with afile.

Tu finid die cultor (irmly in position a wedge is fituvl sy that íl pimpas sliglñly beyond tin- Hire^ and a damp pice? i* screwed on as shown [n Fip hi practice the cotter Ex placed in position, wedge ptHhed badfcwaid until it Ts ti^ht3 and tlie jerewu Kn-en a turn each. To remove the fnjLter the screws orc loosened. 'Ihe W&^c must projrci from the face ctjuidlly jail round, arid (o ensure this « should E>e placed in the groove well town ids the mouth. A plane passwl over diu top of h will m.Lke i i level u-Ech tlie sEdn. TEius when moved upwarft to hi correct jwsition, ¡1 iH-Crasarilv pi-o-jeCH slightly by ihe same amount all round.: Xote from Fi£. t) flint (En- clamp i.^ tut away ill the iosido in the form Ot" a wide, shallow relíale!

CHAMFER PLANE 'goritr/uud jirqn\ fv/jy J 5;.

mouth is prell'rjEj]^ as, owing to ihc narrow mouU), tin- plane is hahh: U> dip in, flspcdaJJy jfiEic back Of I he plane ix raited.

Con*lrnc(ion.—fiouare the bloek f<„ the chamfer body and work tlie-V groove in the underside. Cut the from at deg.'. and mark out and ern jhe groove. Bore ihe bole for ific bolt, mad cut m a recess to Iahe (he nut at lEie ddn-.

Prepare si|narid*u]j for pi ans botlv, cut end at dfg., and warft tongue to lit in groove It shoutd make a ha 1 id-tl.ijht (it, Mark WApemen11 down sj<lrij and hjiw away waste at fiir as pofs i Esle. Cli i sel reirL¡i ¡ nder a nd íi'i i isti wj ti i í Eionlder plane, l'it tlie 1W9 móutlka and 3ha|íe the sjd^, |Jut slot for Iwilt and ftírin recesa ar fUL- Imit heaíi. A washer EÜAuld be fiiH-d.

TOOTHING PLANE iCMi^^fivs and eiLije, MiA onl the dowel posiClods gauging fam lEie sole anii >i|n;iririii the Ein« aeross. Tbo CXSet prsitions do [lot matu r a fircat deal hut El is Otjffijnusly noccifflry to jiiace (Ell-ih sfN jthfiC they Clear ihe. t^eLipement, it is u 50^! ]j|an also glightly [h> coLLiitcr-sink lire h^les sei that ally dried iiiue will not interfere the cEose cramping nf tEie joint! lhnt the parfi together dry a»tJ levtl ihe to|> and I mm trim. Sc^uarH1 ae:-H)Ss tiOlh the ixwi-tion of die mouth, eseajH-rtieiit, wedge groove, arid so nil. Separate ibeui and draw in itie lirn-b on the inner fjicci. Note lEüii the cutter tiki Ijflek at a slight ai>glc~iT [5 in fact only a few decrees out of ihe lertieal.

Saw io ihe line as accurately ns jhimEIi]^ because it i^ nil a^k^-Ljrd joli lit pare llic end (irain alter-^■ards with( chael. t:|iia.-[ away tin- w&Jte,

1 ry the two ]n\rts lo(ierlK'r and if nec^sary carry on (ifny adjuslmc m Mth the chiscl. Vou ca n then k'uc uij. when dry level die joints Details of the wrdj;e ^re given in Fiff.

fir^rrr fjr cwoow ft


rVüCt llil LhA líáivt fhpw [0-iftfl thi mni,;i, »tUfl I e>--T' t.41 r IjliI I^i-'ii wirh th DÜECÚ m ■ 4 ihi .j-Jir Ol Ehe idlir r-" ¡( .'.ly üprljíifc


rVüCt llil LhA líáivt fhpw [0-iftfl thi mni,;i, »tUfl I e>--T' t.41 r IjliI I^i-'ii wirh th DÜECÚ m ■ 4 ihi .j-Jir Ol Ehe idlir r-" ¡( .'.ly üprljíifc

y flf rouchiwg oh iíftut tlawé i kj u 5-e Thn luLLíí thll c-l(n. J t»ini [Ivcn L Ml p.ra|4CI iOP. ÍY" rlrhc tinillh Lilt i hi [init ncy iit h!4 Ml tjt*>T tfcut falljfflBPH«*'


7hi! ii 9 r-andy 4a)i far <lit roaih plönj*£- a pita of WDttf wii.'i troLii if Otfint on il wOJt<¡ inrififcibl¡r ufcf

ú¡{ tht ktä of a jadk plan*, urbrrws tii* jíhtíNííje p\ant ifWi. iic.:ng at wf i&lfk. íl/t¡ i^ftl UnrffJ the pn.iniid í4iifntí Old ra rarefy tiiupei bíinf dialed. Of nny plone tiieO fw nou^i 'E

bound (0 rest ¡In » cut titear M when <r plane ¡i fíif rved 3piiJ<?l'K ff r SrJch- /ab« ont dot5 not m./iif [fit idpt nioirl swiie<«¿i¡r!.

y flf rouchiwg oh iíftut tlawé i kj u 5-e Thn luLLíí thll c-l(n. J t»ini [Ivcn L Ml p.ra|4CI iOP. ÍY" rlrhc tinillh Lilt i hi [init ncy iit h!4 Ml tjt*>T tfcut falljfflBPH«*'

THE plano l^n in tfre pÍHMOgríiph aliovc is jiiHi over tj in. Lon^,. ha* a ip. ctiltcij and is. jJTovtded Llti :i front bandín fli' hon»-A kíih^Ih; CUiPer is all thiH ncicded fnr a phmc doíng auch POUgh work, and the illOUth is tdíitlc eUtrn laige to cjlvt easy oLi"i ranee to the COarse shaviiiLp. To siinpLtfy ¡mS cultirii? otLt of the escapcment thc plañe is niad« ¡ti two pietes joitied togviluT ftlonjí thc rentre and stiengtbencd witK dowets, Thc saiv can ti illa be used, savíng a i¿i•irjt, dcal of áü'ktvhird rhoppintf out.

Maldng thc )olflt, practicó 1> an>- haidn rclíalik; wood CHi be uwxh St|Uíi»v up thí1 tWO Ijiívvs, nwk üíi.- tiiin sífJe antJ edge, Jliíl planc ihc joiiil perfeí.tly truc, llwí poflitions of the dowrli are iLtiirliH^i inh and it is Jieeessiiry til tntni-ivithin ít littLt' thc positiOn of thc moulh and escapeanent so llistl Ü1C dowcls Can 1*1; placr-d accordicifíLy. I he moulh rn-nl 0111y he skclched ¡11 rtpprmimatdy 011 ihr- onc jjiett. All ihat aced lxr done iheii k to Ixutt ptecfí together 1 rm-pgxanly wítth ¡ifríLinji and separe Úití miarles acnsss l>i>t]i. The distante 11 p of thc dowcls it iníirktd willi thc this bfi]]« used fníiin 'he hcc edgt fthát llic 5olr) i n henh cases.

  • Ta^l!|ilg 11 li: moulh JbJ í ;i fjtnri ng t he hole<. ír.Ji both moulh aild eseapement can be iriftrked. To fcüíurc ]>oih sidei líeiiifí alildow,Tls can Ijc pla«d temporan]y m thc lioJeSj tlic tu o Einr-d toKclbtrh a tu! the irarks squared nirrotis the 'l'Ese sbics eau be üiltm fioiu Bjgí. t, lt rtlid by usinj; 11 m" Rea Le. A gdod pl; 1 n 10 mark the "peni 11 n tn ils eiuirely o^ onc piccc» and trailSÍCT (Ese naarks [O the other by stjiiarhlg aeroF,;:. líepim ^iilí lln-two initfh loe lhc moulli. an<L stiáln- iu the bed u]H^l ^-hich the Cultce w'M lir: at 45 dn-g, l'lie inoulh ll( tile Lmiit s]o|ks at ;i jltghi anille as in Fitf, a ui> 10 aE?oui halP^ay üiiíurIi, wlitn il reverses its aln]nL. TEic wcd^e is
  • tEi^wn in 1 2 birtd 4.

Hkving fanifcmed ihe tiviris -Ltid gauged in (En; dei>tli (notó thnt thc vooíl in finmt of tJic wedge

Krwve taÄrtS iLway towarritlln: bötlofli), tlifi varout Hurfaccs can be djiwn iti. Kour CulJ are needed ; «je ;li caeh side pftt^ wedge grwvc, aod iltr; two ac (Eie Ire fit, careful tlOt to täte l]hl saw doWB too deenly. Vor iiKjianceh you will See ihai ihe ml forioäfig lliC J'ront Hfl' thr- mouUi docs twU rtiich duwn SO für at lEie S>p as al ihc bottom berate ci the slope of Ürt Wood in fronl üflbr wrdpe &OOVt. l"are all ihn- injrfhce? doivn 10 a niec chean Jinis!» Li rtd cui tlie tu paed tha 1 nfa al llie top. 1EI ie wh 1 Jr: lEbhigis readv Eor RluitHg np.

I'ii [iiifi Vpi-At die front a noteh ßin l>e eut to cnabte tfic höOfrt to lie fittcd> Cut 1t sfpiare artd uiepftre ihc !>Uwk for ihc hoj t». I'his is in pLun jvi tauiiuLbr Lorni, aiirL ;n sinlr :i t,.,r-: li ^ . ui that il Jits OL-ci- ihr front of the plane, I hre,-dowels il I-L- LiiLiJ to fm Ell n jciLiU, "Int p^itlon lEiern a piecr- of caidEioard of thc e?iae1 siae njf ihe frettf of llit plane il prcjiai-^L and the three briNs prieked in tliis. Ii is dien just a malK-e Ol plaei™ Lt a^ailUt eacll of die ]>j»rts aud boric^ lEie liolrs aecordinjilyn .

After littirygf ihe cui-^'c tan lif inariied «1 flfl dLoun in put risht ibroägh in both dü^tjoBS aii<L e tbr'ii rotLiid od' t'ir corin-^. ,\t the lop Lt is practiealLv completdy rourttl in fcCüüjö and sndually Ebrw ¿1 sqnari towardt the betten^ i Lveu herc, bov/ever, ttir sharp cornere an^ iLikni ofT. The gjuing 011 of ihe Eiorn, and thfi chani-ferinp of^ic edgea praeiicaÜy K*mpiei« the rttum siwli exccpt for inillw the soic- TElis latter a böt douc after the YJpÜ&i » »1 posiUou.

Fl ff, 6 ihow-s thv ihape üf the wcdjtc- l'Lace lEte cutter in p^ition and carefully ht the wed^ep makiufi Süee thai «i beds dosdy Aroushoui ^ ienftth and is nS tight One sidc the otlicr.

"I he eutter sliould Im.' well rounded wheu being sliiU-|>ened. Ii alwa^ Ilms a sc »ttit«, »»d if lt»t Ihtl the comi-i^ are JiiLhle to dlg tn and fixrft ;i Sffl'iei of l id^ whlch will hais 10 be remo^ed. K.erp die solle well greased or oiled wheA liie jjhi»'-is in usc.

Making the plane in halves simplifies construction

f IG. 4'
  1. I. FLAN VlEtf/ ^ITH iC*lL | |
  2. J. SIDf FLivyhtiOH MDUtH DETAIL


TOOL CHEST (OmUaUfifitm jVf diEikinIsh in l-cu^iti according Co (lie thickness of boards ij aiu) l>> which aet guides I r^y sides will 1m.- Jiii., dovetailed ur lapped Lit the corner* fl'J. Bottoms may he of | id1, pnwood rebflted in, Underneath the trays there i-^ ¡utijjle space fu-r tools in less frequent use. This space is usually divided by a partition [Cj, which may run up to the ledge (£) below bottom Hay ; but here many chests arc lilted WLtft lidi (H, Fir. ti) which slide Ijclwid lillets fj)-. The chief advantage of this lid is that it provides an CKCI'a shelf for temporary storage purposes. If introduced, clamp the hd with frandvvood ends.

Chisel and gouge racks (KJ may I*. fillu'd above the saw campartrocnt where they ivill be ready at baud.


ir? ut'üLofrii'itjf lortu ttadtn her* nerar con? otfttf ifrii CkI^

af p-li'ic dt id i ttriainif r[ ri urtCimmurr. Marjf woodwark<ng ua4tJ iiCVfj lifr rt J! tot tlWJfl fffe «¿dJjflni ^fti/1 rt tan br LHC-7 frporfy. ft ¿r iJE«f nKntif \yf p\HfK rpflfcifj fat »^rfcinE rifh; 4jp ic 4 oorncr, or*tf in tr. ir cefln«tign i t C<m frequently Jjc ii'ud YrVisrc ciy j£|;«t IkJic of pfanr. vhoji'J he i-i^ii!)/*-.

TWO ways ¡11 Villich the plane would COjmc in handy art- shown in Fig. 2. 31 l ihr- one ihr' ]j|ftne ¡s smoothing njlii u]> au Iütcn$] roriKT, and □ it Ehr other ts a stopped chamfer Ji: which lisa plane could work right up to the slop. Ma& other uses will snidest themselves- sueh as trimming a s topped rebate.

It v. ill In- realized ;h;ii it cannot be used in place of 1 In- more normal type of plane : ir moo Irl dij; in jlid Jail Co produce a flat IJlirikcc, Furthermore,

FIG. 1. WHAT THE FIN'S H£D fLANE LOOKS LIXL ll1« i'itl Ir-^ph Is PW ur.pnn.inEL hue jr ihcul.l nac bF !•■ .rh ^nir ^hin ill. 14 iE mi|r t* liAbla La dI± In- Thii plini n Ifl Ir. lanf bviLh ■ I I -i n. (Ll^r.


Nil* rhn ■ ItN^IHitll I] pll[4d huiMAifc [I-.-nb-Mniw [□ (o^f [hi ilal In ih» (ittar, Tha tnnt l[ i.r\rfr [q^tr* lb ihopvn nj- Ic ein ba cyrnfij


Nil* rhn ■ ItN^IHitll I] pll[4d huiMAifc [I-.-nb-Mniw [□ (o^f [hi ilal In ih» (ittar, Tha tnnt l[ i.r\rfr [q^tr* lb ihopvn nj- Ic ein ba cyrnfij



FIG. 1. WHAT THE FIN'S H£D fLANE LOOKS LIXL ll1« i'itl Ir-^ph Is PW ur.pnn.inEL hue jr ihcul.l nac bF !•■ .rh ^nir ^hin ill. 14 iE mi|r t* liAbla La dI± In- Thii plini n Ifl Ir. lanf bviLh ■ I I -i n. (Ll^r.

it could iw>t lie started. iL is s-n Liable only for working into a Comer after the main sur&jx has planed. 'L ite ^reat secret ol' its successful use is [o press well down on the handle. Only in Lliis way .k it ]io«;i|jle to avoid digging in. Then .me e U [ toj1 must be sei fine—some I imes Wthwit any projection at all and gradually fed forwards. Ii usually happens in tlib sort of work that 1 Kl- boner high, and that is why the plane will sometimes CUl when there ¡>no projection to 1 he cutter at all.

t-'ig. 3 shows the plant" to scaEe. The main stuck, whii£l»ltld Iw-of hardwood, Ströhe? in In. by t:]in, Square. AlhM the width H tl ifte full for trimming and rut the front 10 an allele ofioil^ Also-ihitpe the l>ftck- ]"tnish neatly with □ chamfer. The clamp is 4J in. by tJ in. by I in. It lints a hole and slot cut through it u> enable it to 1>C slipped over SCTCW head ahti pushed forward into place, lite thucnljsci'ew can lie any convenient screw, the hole Jor it having

1 he chriLad forced in iir Bore a ho[f to [he narrewest part of the thread and force the screw into it.

The whole of the plane, with ihr exception of the sule, should l)C given one or two Coa ts ol fr e n c h jiolish. M o 51 p 1 ft Fi e ni ft k e r h recommend. this i-uthkc"' than soaki iir vrith liri*eed oil.


" ,


. 1



|.;iT(f3 ■WITH ill" iTANLLr OR fttCO*C PA7TEHH CUT Tin. llVCK IICJ . AMQ LEV lp, CAP

TUl if £tl[ Dot flf ifK J" i^Se-grai/iEJ. ibr(t>T finjtfwMif. A flKWJ /Trfutfl Ct ffn^n r! qLlii etfiiliVi drtd HOS (he aifirffiragc tiicE ¿L CW1 U.i fifed faim imp cdtfnient of miW !t«f. (f piefcried tin afJ-me«?r prfe can frf fUlflif- Tfrii sltou/if be niEmrrftf fvisf m Ui0t the frt fpHir^vcJ.

?i mu j

tf^UT owl main block R in. 1 Ort£n 3 En. widct a ä i ti- liijil 1 :L3 'd Jnark oni as i El Fifi- 5- 111 holes at mouth ■ Fjg. 6) arid bore holr* in ni^piUienl Fig, 7- tibiscl away waste as ill

  1. fipgdcad flat, and round over [he sSdj's. (1 le awjv rrar and chop recess with df *ve-C.üi It bottom,' Fig. & Finish off ai Fig- 1«
  2. nd fit handle, '['his continue Jim- of fnoLi so thai CttlttT i-1 supported behind lop of lever cap, Jtorr hole lo ^n111 s^.- JW Iwi iron mit, and insert iflpj-hflad sltc'.v for fixing, Adjust with cutter, liack iron, Hid leur-r eap in position, No adjustment is lilted. ^int ilS Ordinary wond smoothing plmtn

Z»At HOUHD M&ULOinQ PlAN( IN Uit Tii.liari VfeiS" Jh.Jn Tdit "L 11 lD F>lkba ■ tr|L chg

„idih Di wh.ih ,t (iuJ » r:- hH W. 7h, |tTml 3 :-":nF - f-ri auiTl~n Lipa» irv. p^HÜIrn b4 wm-kc-d,

IN making any kiöd of plane tkc chief difficult v ss fflat of Cutting the hofc for the mom Fi nnd escapement, Arid lhe difficulty ¡s greater with a small pfartc became there is J«? kkhji in which to I rL; I rii] I Li I. I L(- the tooL JTie jeasoti for Lts lieiotf ¡ilit Aukward job is that tfnr saw iihhtjt 1*- used ■ it is necosary to bare i hole and then em the final shape wilh ;t small chisel. fty following lhe method li|' construction ¡{ivi-n here, however, the raw can be used to nil in the sides. To finable (ha 10 be done thr planes described here :tm designed so that one side Is open. The hole is Ihus really a tapered gropve, the sides of which am he saun. A separate pit« is fixed on at this side, so enclosing It and making it Virtually like tin ordinary plane made in a ¿olid block, in practice ihe method has proved very succeed,

Small Rotmd Plant .- Ä particularly useful type of plane is a small round to wort ^iü oi anything from about ' hi. up to | in. sueh i-, diat ihoM-u in Fig, i. Ji rousis^ of a main stock wheeh includes the whole of the working jjarr of the fil.ine, and a side pieee Screwed lui as shown. It could I* jnadn in a very short time arid at proctictlly no ft»i, The plane is shown in use above.

  • Another plane, similar in that Et ivorla a hollow, is that in Fig. c, It differs, li^wci-, in that it is provided with a fciiue and depth stop, making il suitable for I uniting around the edges of, ¡üi-, ¡l ■^rnaLI table top or panel» the fence and atop ensuring that die resulting hollow i\ ol exactly the SLLtne section throughout. Apart from time '_: 11 the wnrk involved is identical with the plane in Fig. r, ¡One point to- nole is that lhe plane is intended to I*- Eteld at after the manner^
  • it JLios-t J-iunlisli moulding planes, the advantage of this IxmiR [hat The shavings are «tabled to clear


¿.'rhKjgii fr ii fwTJrtk itt ohicun rtady mo4t J Wide »/(«¿¡m t>(pton« jc w«tk various JmiuMjnjei, thf* entertain sectivm fir which pidirir an tfirtrJirii/i, fa parljcLffor [fe smal) IftCiartt nftir> faired lf} lltti* cMf»Ut hote;, and is We show fie™ □ ¿wpJc wgjf of uigJt«^ rJicnt.

more easily. It rne.ins, however, ,hat the sli:iue Ol the rotnid ntitl dte stop and fenee h;ive Lo b,-set. out a I an iiu^te- as slu^-rt in the end vi<-^- in i-'isf. i.

lhe wood used for a moulding plane irf not specially i mili tant providing dlfltU ishaidand reliable. Beech, sy^none, one oi l!ic harder varieties of niahoiiany, « amy shni^r wi»d can x.- LL-yil with surccs, Oak ouuld be usrd, but it has the disadva tila^e of heing rather coarje in the Kfain, mukirtii it utisuitablc lor worjeing n Vrrv smalt see Lion. J|" [MJoible it should be hadiafly eul -that is |fie miliary rajs shonld run from top lo Pjoltoni. Wood ettt in i his way ii more iv[iablc3 and the ends of the rays are exposed at the soli- and offer greater resisianc- m wear. This is shown rh-arEy in Fig. C,

Marking Out- A convenient siiie ft^r the main sLotk of thtj plane in Fifc. 2 is 7 in. long by ii in. fiigh, by I jri. and Hit lirst thing lo Im- done

IS iHi pw? Sup the v.H,£1d pcrfcciiy tme to tEicsr size*. At the froril end Lhe shajie of cKr sole is marked out. An adjustable bevel is handv when tries as it enables the various faces to in- ' marked ex;lci[y al righi armies with each other. A »1 J; shcrt^s the rnarlfin^ 01 n. The exaci cttifily is not specially important - tbat .u X ■ \ FiLT. 4) c,Ju!d fis ¡25 or ^o ; hut !l is essL-nli'.f that the Other two lines arr at riifJit LLiimtL-^ wilh it. I his lf auiinnatic when lhe adjustable bevel is used for marfciirt The eurve Ol' the round is marked out at thl- Intenection of the lines. In the prc^m case rili- curve hit? a radhis tif a bare ft til., but this Could Pjc Varied within a lillle one way or tfae olEier,

Having milked lEte Ihtnt. [he [joF-ElEon of ihr-members can lie gauged ^n as A j-uidf W \tdi svorkiin; the .sht,pe. [ n fact tlLe posil irm of C El<- renlrt Ji orn ^ Eiicli the curve ts Urucik cotlltl ije trimsferred by firsL up from below, and then in from the side; It wall be realized that in the praciicaL Working of;the coulonr tin- iveiod u removed (irrt in (lie Ibrni of two relwtles which are stitLare ^ itEi ill" 1;. [-¡Li. ■. J'be ■■.,:,:.■

therefore Eie those of th™: rcbal^. U is jusL :, nialier ol ¡Hitting (Elc gan^ from the side ro the places where die curw intersects the straight Bnes, and gaii^ng the sole. These marks ;irc shown at Lh<r end in p-'iR.

The Month. liefert cutting the shape il is advisable Ui mart out the groove wbieli forms the mouth. The angje qF the ^tier could Ik about y>der. with the sole, and the lint a I the front 5 the vxjdge about 6*> dej. The width oJ ihe mouth is W sortie importance. It should be as small ;fl cfarttcal working v4U allow, and the fine I cntnaderalion here is ifl allowing sufficient cicatrice for [lie shavings. A distance of about fo. from the edge uf I In cutter lit [lie mouth IS about naht. The actual width of the giwve at tbtt point' depends upon the thickness of (he cum-i'- A qUItft Hood flitter call he filed Up J'rr^i an old P'ccc <nf handsaw bkdc, cs pedal 1? the thicker kind. I Hb might vary from ,',; i". up to ^ in., aiKl the wood must I« parked out accordingly. fhm^ t«J; cart he made from ihose Applied lor small grooving ptinei. Lhey at? excellent for the pm-pose^liut being only some 31 in. in lepglh ihey are rather awkward to set beeause jfcey protect only it Li 'htlv a11 he top oT 1 he plant-. 1 f 1 h is type of cutte r is used it is better to cut down the height ot the plane From-ffi-rnV to 2 in. 'Lhe thickness of the eutter is about J in. Their special advantage is lliat (he greater thickilto p:-e vents lulv podfluhM of chatter due to aiw give in the substance of the cutter itself.

h will }k peen from ihe end vl^w m Fig, 2 that although the width of tlie cut is not more than :: i n [ III- Actual cut n- r is considerably wider. 1 his i* partly became of the angle at Which the sole is set, and pni'dy because durable for the cutter ro be nearly wide as the wedge that the latter has plenlv to bear against,

Cutting the Sliapr, Their \\f* special jwmit about WOlkinp the shape ol' ihe sole. B, Fig. Shows the stages in the process Two rebiues are worked Etal, and then a scratch is filed to a fcuene of die shape and this used to finish nfT Remember when filing til scratch Lliat the phi on has to be used at ¡111 angle. To prevent accHents it fe an excellent plan to use a scratch having two fences which bear 31 each side of the plane. They prevent the scratch from diggi ng in. A thorough rubbing wi Lh lilasspaper followi, the latter being wrapped around a rubber. It is obviously i mporla tH dia t ^neAt ea re is taken in ruttim; tire mouth because the cuttee must Iwd tfö&n (rue, To help in this respect the maris c;tn cot in with ft child so thai a small doping «roOW can be chiselled on the waste side, this providing a channel in which the saw can run. Sut down I,he sidei V iEIl a fine saw. and chisel away riie waste, taking care to make the bottom as flat j 1 id as tt ur. jls possible. This is opeciaI Ly 1 mpoita fit at the lower end because gashes may cause chokm^ owing to shavings forcing their way under the wedge.

At this stage the wedge should be cut out and fit Led- lW ilte cutter in position and plane the wedge it lit* Accurately for tin- whole ol it* length dov.» the «i-hjovc. '[lie lower end ls



hc i siol *nd eno of ploumc. houlimwc fn-anl rhu it,t nJ- pi*« Hi*™* =0. tht f««'"i-

hit 1 vlf«s o; iCOTIA PLANE WITH FE"Ct i-hn UF-d * 1" ""t1' bl Chi lm" " lht t Ii J ; I uf STAGS. rM E HAIH DLOCH MAR KEU OUT T^í lln-1 >n W Inrir^L lb* lUlrLx nt At 1h«P'=-

ha 1 SmAPL OT SOLE WOKHEOANDtNECROOvt CUT ¿I'riMl (Q "Vilj In Iii* iriw«-

fic J. THt COMPLCttO fLANE REACt FOR UiE Neu uf th"w iMt .hjviftjv hc i siol *nd eno of ploumc. houlimwc fn-anl rhu it,t nJ- pi*« Hi*™* =0. tht f««'"i-

hit 1 vlf«s o; iCOTIA PLANE WITH FE"Ct i-hn UF-d * 1" ""t1' bl Chi lm" " lht t Ii J ; I uf STAGS. rM E HAIH DLOCH MAR KEU OUT T^í lln-1 >n W Inrir^L lb* lUlrLx nt At 1h«P'=-

ha 1 SmAPL OT SOLE WOKHEOANDtNECROOvt CUT ¿I'riMl (Q "Vilj In Iii* iriw«-

fic J. THt COMPLCttO fLANE REACt FOR UiE Neu uf th"w iMt .hjviftjv

make sure that the wedge zeds down true


■ l'A ,hjp. H M NI Ir ch* tftlflhAr upfts bl-^L n r,n bt ImU


■ l'A ,hjp. H M NI Ir ch* tftlflhAr upfts bl-^L n r,n bt ImU

\w\lwted oui as i^ewn ¡n 4 fll]j 5 ^ [hj,t the sHavI n^ arc autrôtaticaflv eh roWn out. it b i* tier [O do thu part of the work after tilt plane is corn-plcied, how#cr, ^ccaise the knocking home of the a certain amount of eomprosion Which altera the final |>Ofitkm of ([if wcdW intt thB in mm controls the distance up that lh^ Jiollow reaches.

Finibhing Off.- It tiow remains fat to itrcw On the Joost: Ride. Sow it on drv to see that it maka a rood fit, and liien tooth the faftiiw gtae, «id screw; u,] again, ^^

because ojtiMivi» che of the Wed« may

I r-nd to draw i he pi a tie i nb > a c on*. Take speeii d tare to ayOid iLupins glpe in [he groove, A little linseed ûd nibbed in it hill ma hie the inevitable ¡icj ueeiied-on t to be removed easily

A s%ht amounïof adonnent may li.- necessary akènes, hm this q ^IlMy oniy aL the Wedie 1he important point is to see that there is no nan

II undernr^horaL ihe side, because rim would

<-aLLie shavings to wedge themselves in and Cause

CtMking. incept Tor the sW of the 'ole the round plane m Fig, t h made in exactly ihr name way.

A Rebate PJane. Thij pjinc j similar to (he ihe Moulding plam-s, l,U[ it diners in [hat both fLdes have to be completely open so (hat iL can bt med iît either The same printiiilc of niaktng il m two part, is t&hwcd to the hole Jor ilic wedge lo he eut easily. The lower part of the opening of contre can be ptctäfed i iiçFit through both pieces siitö&ha, vingt have to esta pe from hot 11 sides. I hese tffita ils ¡, rr shn^ tt dearly m F igt 6 and 7.

A good, all-round stsc for the cutler iï J] in and it is advisable lo obtain this at the outseï and work ¡o it. Not only is the width COnlroJktl by it, bu| the height of ihr ihÖSUde« affi-ets the if™ Begin by preparing ;he two blocks lo the Over-a 11 Size. O ne of diem is j| in. tljjek and the other J in.T the reason for the ffilïermcr bcmït^at the rani occmi at one side of the wedge fiole infite;itl of in iht. centre. This saves having to eut a Eironve in both pieces.

On !hc ifpiik pietT marit nut the khjovc and the ocfl^enient opting. J he Nnple ean he rj0 dçg. for ih? cun er. f.'m in the aid« of flic groove and remove the waste wi th the cFiisej, When ihr escapement i^ (jeing it is vi-ry irn|Kirtant that the bed on which the flitter r^-sts riontinnes in a H1 raiglu line with the groove. WJiert satufactwy screw on the thinner bloçlc, and with a pencil mark round LI H- escapHMïJt, Tf a machine i>and. j ifi saw k available the openinri&an l>c pierced throujrb ofirr gluing up. but if done by hand it is hriter to separate In-st. Ult in a trifle full everywhere 16 at!o\v foi" li irmning,

^ro^^ [Jloroughry loolJ, Lhe joi tling sur&ccs, lifi,t » a™ "Pn driving in flic sertWT as (luickiv as possible. The Sole nhnuld U. sbol with I he wedge m and wnh the cnllrr slighilv withdrawn fig. a VI(W AT EMo hùl* ihn [hi mHlulPiry «I u&rifht, fig. a VI(W AT EMo hùl* ihn [hi mHlulPiry «I u&rifht,

It! d"ir|tltd l^ D-irqo ic flu,'

  • H '»w T9 H Ultd
  • li. f. H-i/v THE REfiAJi fIANL IS hfLLO IN Ml





block plane

Jfrir plane Jiöi trj^cJ ir ¿flftipfete iutttti dmf w.Ji [tfckJc nny of Lhi jobs [<ff Wi'r\-.';\ Ififr jnflnr i.ii.-j,' ina/i plane ij wreri. Tht gioTy Halt if Df(bi suttei.

AHöfJt rn/t ¿f«j< ef cJgrcfiramed, ftiiivy hartf^wH üj (Co^Jii^ Oük rföfS rrrv we-li), .-Unu^ cpn bfl riJnut J fn tWtffi, fiiViPf JMm for eftijfI lo Jw curi. It h f r«rrf Iiwr a ifparfti AHunUeÄ flint^t part wfiita by botinj and :h.ici «wlrtAf, Fit □ Kl in. blotk pl£nC £4JttV. Cot rilHith n«H fi.'irf fit hard mauelt (fcoxwiood .'rfcoi''i. ftnjsii mein shaping and preparr ciamf). TlUT Oi'wpti ofl a .-I, in. iotf (a 4.iu. (>fni£ jiljiJ cm

(TPrtfl KCilf, C<omp ferew JI ifip rflrhr-fJirfrU ¡iii/.'ni-ifrw fort*) Jims ftfllfl in tfamp na tvttftip Iii iJi^iaJ. Mokt iu-ffi (tat cutter frerff dffwj ■?■! Wffie it t/(fJfwi[ Kv [tny fir». ^aJf trfitirnlUg Wötfe.

fie I. MADE IN iQX OH SIMILAR HAftoWQOD *hi 'e I1! I h al ihp u in. thej[h 4 JI[Lli inure or

H Y*öuld ITJKB -J.i<r. dl^t^ncn Thl .-■■.:..Jrh, , hnulj tn IHUll.

fie I. MADE IN iQX OH SIMILAR HAftoWQOD *hi 'e I1! I h al ihp u in. thej[h 4 JI[Lli inure or

H Y*öuld ITJKB -J.i<r. dl^t^ncn Thl .-■■.:..Jrh, , hnulj tn IHUll.

IF is iftipcrtaiit iu make an accurate full-size drawf»K EireCh and ihts necessitate having the CUCtcr so (hat die juomh can be act out property, a small ]i lolle ii u moil dcsinbir because Li minimizes any tCTKleccy lo tçar- A cmter riKJin n Stanley pattern plough plane jÄ ¡n. wide M";IS usi.L.I Jbr Lhe pi in Fig. i. It is at 47 dig.

Setting om. Flanc a picce of boxwood lo a rcctan^ukr shajie large enough to include thv wltule shape (see dotted linos ill Fig, a), and Carry out all substqjicni jnarkiEiii out frojn the soir- as tar as possible, This sole is JeÏE straight and square until the whole of the rest is finished. 'ITic mouth and escapementjs one of the Fii-st Jul id, hut l«.-lbi e yitu eut it is accessary to cut away »file of eJh-WAitc wood at tin- lop im shown in Pig. ï. At the rear a saw cul can be mado a trifle fnlJ of the slope ofpe Irotf ; at the Profit die cut tanjuft cleur the handle-, Whilst the horizontal line is made parallel wIeFl the sole. True up this surthee with the ettnel. All lilies Jftving lhe slope of ihr culler, wed ¡ft, and escapement front should In- taken across both sides and llicn u.i across at ihe top. With the ^auge mark the mouth width at I101F1 sole and lop, draw in the wrrl^e, Hind Lhe ia]>cr of the escapement.

lhî^-llïrtv the Eec^pcumiic . You w ill have to rely largely U]JOrt the chisel for Cutting away the waste since it is practically impo&ble Lo use the saw; except at the ^ides of the mouth where the Lliin end of the keyhole-saw can be used lo ¿In estent iii eiiL by ]>orin^ a serSw of fioles Straight aCi-oss tl]e mouth and right thrqglgh, taking particular earr jjo slope lhe brace so that no wood is removed which should remain. At the top a fi-hh- more hol« hg. 2. p*himiha*-ï iHAPiwc compound


A.'Eh$iJgJi [Ml paniiviat pldnt >i niarfr with i(i »fe fiifrttf iwth optf widLfl, J.'n.-i iMflki/if rE luitnite far iueft Wt:k

  • r: rrnnfeJ bLiiJ<fji»£L idf/ttf mOuWiD^i, cid nn, it ewjfc) ji/iE m rnviy Jif flifldf H,H,h Q f'j; ü61 witfi iL1:-: Jiifie (Lfrw in iJtljfj JfQf wfäh, Jr Jj « tjrErtflHiy Jiöndp Tcpf and v-rry fv/ttilf, Tbc fran< Jlftrn W JiMjJrt tnübttl Ji Co b^ ¿rflijurf
  • iwp frflnrfi, anii (iir ftbf Jl iflViIi/iirtJ ivtiJ jip, so ü cjTityr liitle ..: r,L: r.nd fjfevEibljnf ail ^iiii.h.i.if1 ehotetr. ft ii rrn^Ji.' J tjri^Je frtmi bcurwDod, cr.nd Jr ü .ni; ■ -irc-'-es-C- ""¡;

ean he iwj:cd, bin thr^C 0]>\ious3y caiiiiot Ik-talserL riylK thixiugh. The writcr Ii Mim 3 [hat ihe l>est plan was lo CUt ihc tapering chanii: I oCoupied by die ctiLLer and wedge in its eiltfttlv fiesL. h prqved a slow job cuttiog away ihr wood witb a sin all chisel, but onee a Start Ii. ■: I heen made iL was po^ibte (h> uk ihe eiud of ihe keyhole-uw. The slope foimäug the Irog 011 whieh the CLilLer was lo bed chisellcd ÄpproKi-mitely Irtie, bul pared dead accLLraii- 1lil<:-, After this the rest of the ocaptinent cl iiselled. Ii Will bc rcalized (hat if the laLLer is tut hrst and the wedye Channel hitc:r. the short gTfliil is [¡ahle lo crunible.

U'licn the cotnplete escapcmcnt i> rinLsFicd lEte form ofthe handles can be cut, A file is handy fbr ftduci.iK dowa to shape, ihis bting folloucd by serapH-r :md glasspape:1. Finafly the ihanileis Can Ix1 tut, and the sule workeLl to the icfjuüed shapr-, any adjniLnient to the niOUlh ihen heing nlatle. Ii IS a^Lvmible to Lrue the sole wit|i tllr wcdi;e driveit in, the emu-r beinj; pultcd in a trifle i^n ihat it dws tiot foul [he plane being lised-

hi fill too] making il is advisable to obtain the CLtlter E]rfore begiiimng the woodwork Otherwise it niay necessitate altcrinioiB iT a cutter of ihc inlend^d iiœc is noL av.ii(able.


fIG. !. THE COnfLLTTt SCHAFE* PIANF lh.n la j ip-lir-di-J EA^I for iltl*,r|( ■■■ h lir^c idkn, I" (in b< .Lid ivir ii^-viL Iht FPlin, IPtf will brie* flvq (iir( ^n-J Irrquilitlii. lb ihovld I» Ijriwnd adjustable


fIG. !. THE COnfLLTTt SCHAFE* PIANF lh.n la j ip-lir-di-J EA^I for iltl*,r|( ■■■ h lir^c idkn, I" (in b< .Lid ivir ii^-viL Iht FPlin, IPtf will brie* flvq (iir( ^n-J Irrquilitlii. lb ihovld I» Ijriwnd

Tl IE tool is ratber like: a spHikcihavt in ii hat 51 projecting handle at each sidej but dir-mIc is biOAtl alftd long—fthont 4} ill by 3 in. It is 11 mde fntiiely in wood h die exception of lI■ 1- cutter which is a -2 J in. Stanley pattern scraper cutler: A elamp held by two iCrml holds the cutter iit position, ant! ail adjustment screw sei* the latter fine or coarse.

Uüc.- Tö sharpen the culler (he rdtjr sharpened on ihe oihione at an angle of ni>out ■ I"] deg, ' not aL right "iPf^ta like die ordinary Steel icriipa j. It is then fiNcd uptight iit (he vke and die L'dgf turned with a rounded iteel tool such as a gouge. Fed cl 11- bevel, raise the hand* a trifle, itud make one stroke. Kaiise the hands a trifle : 1 mre arid make a second stroke, l inally bring the jjcitinc up inn iE it is about t deg- below the hoLi-nwbl, 'Hie edt;c can be turned once or twice in this way lurtoie nibbing down becomes necessary

On pnur [fcurilbs frrrflmc bannt whiM ¡r« Mir the Quinary ilitl Sfi^ff t H is uSuflJi'/ Oflty tM ]"□■ fEiiiiirijr Cüblfrft maktf who tifi liSC JE fw ir.nir Jrn.fth tif lime. He JeveJgf" Witte« w^ifch od m □ piüiuLtran. Thii Jj/flftC einffbirs fiJH (5 icrojw <f mjfirte >vrl (Jif ¡Ji'jjfatrsi di'ltimfe«. Jit faci icnJ v\nuoUf Ji mirt JiJii 0 Hifer/ini f Jflnt.

agiftin, A hie can i>e used providing it is lollowed by I he oibcone.

to set the tool lotsen ah screws, i^isS in the blade, an J put die whole sole downwards 011 a Ita t l>oard po I hat (he eucLr-r chops down Jhish. "lighten I hi ctamp sclcwej and thep turn the adjustment screw 1 trifle. Try the tooi and Rive tinfmufJ tH /Jjpf



Mötjm CuT rxtrr r/Ki/vT

Mötjm CuT rxtrr r/Ki/vT

  1. 1 F|ft$T JTAGE IN CUrtfHti OUT trif BLOCK
  2. 1 F|ft$T JTAGE IN CUrtfHti OUT trif BLOCK

flc. 3. fpo^t ¿no fmü elfutidhi, amp plan vilw with 1c*il


flc. 3. fpo^t ¿no fmü elfutidhi, amp plan vilw with 1c*il


TMiü so ti: iJlirpoM' of the (Wh j£^Uß<\ of Courge, is to regulate (h-,- depth "fa hole to be borçd in a pi«e öf wgod. It Ilfüm various applications, however In (hi firai place it enables any Dumber dj holes io be bored all r|w wnc depth v.nhoul the botter of counting the turtu of the bra«r TEus is a special advantage in such work as doweling where il is essentia] thai all holes are alike Ia M,?., I hen, it enables a hole to be bored as deeply as die size of the wood allows without I he poinlj oi the hi I emerging at the back. Thin tJic UHgfty oi hafrlg the depth with a pencil k Obviated, and so, roo, ¡s all ^uess work, fine:- the


tfau£e is set to the e*act positron before boring beglttL A last advantage b the lime saved rine? once set, no further listing is needed.

Block Gauge.—I'erhaps Lhe simplest is the rather crude device in Pigr a. It is effective up lo a poinft but is not petleclly reliable. The Way in winch it works is fai rfy ol >vioui. A square of wr**| is cut out. the length bdpg equal to the projection of the Fin bom the cElucIl las the deplh 'of the rcpurcd hole, A hole ¡s bored rtèfit throttth it With the hit Lo In- used this is brat done half-i*av from each end). Thus i,L Fip. ^ a hole 11 in. deep )S ili.i.'ded, and the bu r, ¡F,. to tfie tl[t(rr%

neccsntaimg a block irtr [ong It is clear that [lie IjlI will cctise lo em as thr block reache* Lh<-fiurface of the wood.

Tlu- weakness of this fcwge Ls that the bit tR liable to move slightlv tn or nut of the chuck and "f™ the calcul; n ion. FunFiermore, fresh one Juls to be niable lor each job.

Adjustable Wood Cause. -A better tyj* of home-made tfauj^ is that [n Fig. ï. Two pieces of wood about t in. by f in, by ^ in, aie screwed lOyetlier and trimmed to tin- shape shown. A centre line i.i sî1(i:ired across ihem, after which they are separated and the cenHy; line is nuarrd acruHR the rnccLÎnj; faces. A gV" rut is made acroys Lhesr- centre lines, it will thus Jit any hrèrt bn from i in. àp to, say, I in,, and can liiio! at any position along the bit. For larger hits a larger grtuKe should be madr. For really Big bill J in. or moj'L" four pcrevffl should l>e n^-d, (Etc UiOOd E>ei.qg uidL-r to lake tbeat.

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