Start a Woodworking Business From Home
Few woodworkers have fully equipped metalworking shops, but for anyone with a metalworklng lathe then these little plugs present no problems. For those, like me, who don't have such equipment then a little bit of metalwork, especially in something as easy to work as aluminium, can be accomplished with woodworking tools.
The sixteenth century witnessed the abrupt decline of the line earlier Gothic traditions, after the destruction of the monasteries began in 1530. The Gothic lingered, but the earlier guidance of the Church is clearly absent in the woodwork produced after this date. Such a decline can be explained by no other hypothesis than the dispersal of the former knowledge and taste, with the abolition of the monastic houses. It is at this period that we get crude Gothic ornament of cusped tracery, coupled with still cruder construction, which might cause one to imagine that these examples were the forerunners of much of the fine woodwork of the fifteenth century. There are later methods visible in many of these pieces, however, such as the scratch-moulding of the upright styles of Fig. 36 for example, which show that mere crudity is no necessary indication of age. The construction here is from solid boards, without framing, uprights nailed to the sides in the manner of the early chests, and the...
Modern hardware now gives us the opportunity to vary drawer styles and construction methods. Side- and bottom-mount glides with three-quarter and full-extension capabilities, along with positive stops and closing features, have opened a world of design opportunities. Low-cost metal drawer glide sets, which consist of two bottom-mount drawer runners and two cabinet tracks, are simple to install. Installing the new drawer hardware demands special attention to the drawer body width, as most of the hardware requires very precise clearances to operate properly. Otherwise, building high-quality drawers is well within the abilities of any woodworker or hobbyist.
The woodworker copied the stonemason very closely in the early periods. It is probable, of course, that these round shafts were fashioned by hand, without the use of the lathe at all, and this is further suggested by the fact that the diamond-sectioned mullion, or shaft, rapidly ousts the turned column in the screens of the later years of the fourteenth century, and round balusters or shafts do not appear again. The diamond or square section would be obtained by workmanlike means, with the tools of that date, whereas round shafts, in the absence of the lathe, would be troublesome to pro-Esq. duce, with very little decorative
He told me about one woodworker active in Guild who entered a Queen Anne chair for consideration by the League. The cabriole legs were well done, but they were not highly polished, and there were gaps in the joinery where the legs met the crest rail. Overall, there simply was not enough attention paid to detail.
Served in relieving the bareness of walls of stone or timber and plaster. As will be remarked later on, in the instance of the development of the chest or coffer, there is' every reason to believe that a new and lesser class of woodworkers, the huchers, or box-makers,- arose at the close of the fifteenth century, and they were, probably, the makers of the first wainscotting in secular houses. The carpenter was still responsible for the structural timber work, and was employed for the high-class interior joinery in wealthy houses.
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The conversion of timbers to useful sizes for joinery has always been of prime concern to woodworkers. In the early period, oak logs were converted by splitting with a beetle and wedge, or riving iron, or by being sawn in a saw pit. The first method was quite successful as it did not waste anything in sawdust and the split timber followed its natural grain. It was also less labour-intensive than the two-man saw pit. It did not, however, give such a level surface and this unevenness may have suggested the linenfold motif. For levelling processes the adze was used. During the 1560s the first wooden bow fretsaw was introduced to enable joiners to cut small pieces for inlaying. For working mouldings, a simple scratch tool was used.
To begin with, there are only eight basic joining methods in woodworking. Through the centuries, woodworkers have tried various ways to join pieces of wood so the joints would be both durable and attractive, and only eight basic joint formations have survived. Five of these arc commonly used in furniture making because they have proven their value. As one venerable master cabinet maker told us, These must be good, because we have been working on them for 6.0(H) years.
Next in order come the woodworkers attached to the Church, who appear to have been lay-brothers as a general rule, and to have been free from the power of the King's master craftsmen. The monasteries maintained large numbers of masons, carpenters, joiners, carvers and illuminators, probably paying very little in money, but lavishly in produce and accommodation. From the high standard, both in skill and artistic inspiration (monastic fifteenth-century work is, obviously, a labour as much of love, as of duty) which the ecclesiastical workers possessed, transcending even those of the King's men, it is certain that their conditions of life must have been easy and enviable.
To upholster a chair of this description is hardly a job for the woodworker, but it is convenient to understand the process. Turn the frame bottom up, and web the bottom. No. 12 English grey webbing should be used from back to front, with six lengths of webbing, and from side to side with eight, using good J-in. tacks, and doubling over the ends of the webbing. The insides of the arms are webbed with six lengths from top to rail, and two lengthwise. The inside of the back will require six lengths up and nine across. The springs for the seat (see Fig. 97) should be No. 9 hard 8 in., and the back swell springs No. 7 soft 7 in. Sixteen springs are put in the seat and seven in the back swell (four in the bottom row and three in the top). These are sewn to the webbing
I WOODWORKER'S DREAM STORE i HBk Tanaka Hisao, 77,masterplane theircenturies-old skills to American maker, teaching the perfection and Canadian woodworkers. Our JAPANESE MASTERS SEMINAR is the Tanglewood, the Woodstock of woodworkers, a very special time and rare opportunity in the most pleasant natural surroundings. The information is nonetheless interesting to the layman familiar with only one or two of the crafts. I found myself particularly absorbed by the chapters on stone cutting, slating, and plain or decorative plastering. The woodworker has two hefty chapters to enjoy Carpentry and Joinery ( . . .a carpenter fixes in place what a joiner constructs ), the former discussed by master joiner and builder conservator Giles Munby, and the latter by Harry Munn and David Wallis, both of the firm G.E. Wallis & Sons, who have twice won national awards for the treatment of historic sites in Britain. These two chapters are fairly solid how-to descriptions of various aspects of the crafts,...
The thing I like about the fern table is that, while it is basically true to the original, it's not too complicated for the weekend woodworker. To make sure of that, I came up with two easy-to-make jigs to help with the trickiest cuts the compound miters on the apron edges.
The difference between the terms Mission, Prairie and Arts & Crafts has mystified woodworkers for years, so we set out to seek some simple truths about each style. It turns out that the major figures in these movements thought their work brought Truth, with a capital T, into the home and that defining each term separately isn't so simple. The Roycroft crafters lived in a communal society in New York state, where their woodworkers produced pieces like the magazine pedestal at far left and the sewing stand shown in the photo at left. The Roycroft crafters lived in a communal society in New York state, where their woodworkers produced pieces like the magazine pedestal at far left and the sewing stand shown in the photo at left.
At the heart of the League and the Masters groups are their three-person juries. Currently, Moore and Jere Osgood serve on both juries, exerting a unified force on studio furniture making in the state. The juries are strict but supportive. Applicants who fall short on their first try are deferred, not failed, and are given specific pointers for future success. According to Moore, deferred woodworkers often are invited to bring pieces to a jury member's shop for informal mentoring.
The Guild of New Hampshire Woodworkers has an inclusive, educational mission. Some of the group's 300 members attended a recent seminar at the workshop of David Lamb, in Canterbury. Inside, Loran Smith, the group's current chairman, gave a demonstration on molding techniques. Like many in the Furniture Masters group, Smith and Lamb remain active in the Guild, helping others reach their potential.
The New Hampshire seacoast region where I live was one of the first to be settled by the early colonists. By the 18th century, Portsmouth was a busy port and a commercial center. Local merchants and sea captains invested their wealth in elegant homes, many of which still stand today. Thanks to a renewed interest in restoring these fine homes, about half of my woodworking business consists of making authentic period moldings, sash, trim and doors, mostly with traditional hand tools. Making a paneled door-Despite variations in style, period paneled doors are all constructed the same way Loose panels are set into a molded rail-and-stile frame, which is held together with wedged-and-pinned tenons, not glue. Apart from the joints themselves, the chief technical problem is mating the molded edges where rail and stile meet. In the modern woodshop, router and shaper cutters can cut a perfect-fitting cope joint in a few seconds. However, they cannot make doors in the traditional manner. These...
The window framing from the old house at Hadleigh, Jig. 41, shows, in the same way as the Burl St. Edmunds corner-posts, that rooms must have been low in pitch, even in the timber-houses of the most elaborate kind. This window is fine and important, even for the fifteenth century, when the craft of the English woodworker was at its zenith, yet the total height is under six feet. If we allow for the cutting of the lower parts of the upright timbers, where they rested 011 the wall-plate, we cannot add much more than one foot, to give, the total height of the room for which they were made. Doors also show, although not so convincingly, that they were intended for low ceilinged rooms. A fifteenth-century door made for a secular house of the timber kind, is rarely over six feet in height, and is usually less even than this.
Had George Nakashima taken his work less personally, my chairmaking career might never have begun. A woman who bought two of his very first captain's chairs, years before, feared to return them to their source tor repairs because she knew the famed contemporary-style woodworker was known sometimes to revoke ownership of work he thought the owner had abused. Instead, she dropped them off, in pieces, at my daddy's shop one serendipitous day some 17 years ago. I was fascinated. The chairs were all of oiled walnut and showed signs of being handmade. The spindles bore heavy spokeshave marks like facets on a cut diamond, and the joints were precisely turned and pegged in place. But when the chairs were restored, I found them uncomfortable to sit in. My attempts to better them ensued, and I began developing my own versions of sleek all-hardwood spindle-back chairs. Dunbar went on to say, I once read an article by a fellow who began by saying It may be more satisfying to carve out seats with...
This simple desk was about all there was to some of the early post offices in rural settlements of 19th-century Virginia. Local woodworkers built die desks with a wide variety of native hard and soft woods, and the design often reflected their whimsey. The maker of the piece shown here is unknown, but the desk was almost certainly made in Grottoes, Va., or in a nearby village in the Shenandoah Valley.
Subsequent periods, the question of nationality is not so serious as one would imagine, as we know that timber and veneers were freely imported from the Continent during the latter half of the seventeenth century, and numbers of Dutch woodworkers settled in this country, especially in East Anglia and the counties bounded by the Dover Straits or the estuary of the Thames. Canvey Island was, until recent years, almost entirely a Dutch colony, situated in the mouth of our chief river and within a few miles of the Metropolis.
The acacia was probably the most widely used of the native trees. Evidence of its use by woodworkers can be traced throughout the Dynastic Period. It was used not only in the making of furniture but also in boatbuilding and large constructional projects. A number of tomb and temple scenes showing the acacia survive. A piece of wood from W. M. Flinders Petrie's excavations at Kahun in 1895 is preserved in the museum of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, where botanists have confirmed its identification as acacia.
It is, therefore, vitally important that the woodworker should understand exactly what kind of structural material it is which ceaselessly moves in sympathy with its surroundings, and what precautions he can usefully adopt to minimize that movement. Surface protection with paint, polish or even metal coatings may conceivably delay the natural process but can never entirely arrest it and it is not generally realized that while age itself may exercise a certain restraining influence, no matter how old the wood may be, the innate tendencies will continue to persist throughout its effective life.
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Many of the elements of the comb-back Windsor chair shown above were riven and shaped from green wood. The chair was made by North Carolina woodworker Drew Langsner. Many of the elements of the comb-back Windsor chair shown above were riven and shaped from green wood. The chair was made by North Carolina woodworker Drew Langsner.
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M there are examples in every antique and secondhand furniture store reproductions abound and it's a perennial favorite with woodworkers but what exactly defines Arts and Crafts Ask anyone familiar with the style- also known as Mission, Craftsman, Crafts, Cloister, or even Quaint -how they identify it, and you'll get answers that typically contain words such as foursquare, straightforward con struction, exposed joinery, and quarter-sawn oak. Such elements make the Arts and Crafts style inviting to many woodworkers who are new to die craft and who are less intimidated by Arts and Crafts furniture than diey are by other, more sophisticated styles. Despite us apparent simplicity, however, it's just as easy to get a piece of Arts and Crafts furniture wrong as it is to fail at your first attempt at constructing a Chippendale piece that features cabriole legs unless you have a full understanding of what the essential design details are and how they work together.
During the 19th century, pine was abundant and readily available, and carpenters used it for most interior trim, including fireplace mantels. So a meticulous reproduction would require large, wide boards of clear pine. However, the use of solid pine for this project would present problems (besides price) for the modern woodworker that 19th-century carpenters weren't concerned with. A better approach for today's woodworker would be to construct this mantel using lumbercore plywood instead of solid wood. I used 3 4-in. lumbercore plywood for everything except the plinth blocks and the moldings. (See chapter 1, pp. 9-12, for a detailed discussion of materials.) In the 18th and 19th centuries, woodwork was attached to the studs, then the walls were plastered, with the woodwork acting as a gauge or stop. The finish coat of plaster was then brought up to the woodwork. This method produced an interesting junction where the woodwork and plaster met that was soft and easy on the eye. But...
There is a countertop style that's easily made and well within any woodworker's capabilities. The process involves attaching a wood edge trim to a panel, called the substrate, and covering the top with a high-pressure laminate. These laminates are made with decorative surface papers impregnated with melamine resins that are
During the eighteenth century there were few developments in methods of construction or of the use of new tools. There were, however, some efforts made that were to assist developments in the long term. These early attempts included the 1761 Society of Art's Prize to Stansfield, for his sawmill design, and in 1793, Bentham's comprehensive patent for woodworking machinery. Developments such as lathe-turned screws which were being produced with slotted heads to fix handles, and Maudsley's construction of a sliding tool holder in 1797 which enabled screws to be made more easily, were aimed at woodworkers other than furniture-makers. Their influence was not to become important until the nineteenth century.
This chapter describes all the tools that were used in making the projects in this book. To some extent the list is a personal choice, comprising of the tools I feel most comfortable working with, and other woodworkers will produce similar results using a different selection. Fewer tools could still have done the job, but this might have taken longer, while more power tools would undoubtedly have speeded up the process. The choice comes down to individual preference and will inevitably be a compromise between speed, expense, accuracy and many other factors.
A few years ago drywall screws grabbed the attention of woodworkers. They go in faster, hold tighter, and don't require the typical pilot hole, shank hole, and countersink needed by regular wood screws. This feature attracted woodworkers because you could drive them straight into hardwoods (even with no pilot hole) and they wouldn't break or twist apart. (Although this process is fast, it's probably not the best procedure. More on this later.)
The skill of Byzantine woodworkers was demonstrated by their use of the lathe. They also used the panelled construction process to avoid the cracking of ivory panels due to shrinkage. As in other parts of the Mediterranean, limited amounts of wood meant that stone, metal and other materials were also used to make furniture.
The coffee table shown here is constructed from laminated 1x4 oak boards, but you can also use pine. Most building-supply stores sell sections of wood that have already been laminated. Of course, you can laminate the boards yourself, but I don't recommend it unless you are a very experienced woodworker and possess heavy-duty tools. Due
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There are a number of options and safety features that can be added to your crossculling sled. One woodworker painted the blade guard board red as a reminder ol the danger zone near the blade. Some have Installed Plexiglas guards above the saw blade path, and a few others have built a small enclosed box on the back of the sled where the blade is exposed when the cut is complete.
Eight, the variations will be evident, incidentally. because some types listed are quite similar, some woodworkers class them as one type. Also, some woodworkers classify certain variations as specific types in their own right. The mitered joint, for instance, is often called a basic type. So if you read other books, the number of basic joint types may vary. Don't be confused. While classifications may differ, the names and the way in which the joints are made remain the same.
With the taste for luxury and refinement steadily growing on every hand, a degree of ease and comfort was demanded greater than that which the woodworker alone could provide and it was apparent that something further must be done. It is most curious, almost inexplicable indeed, that that something was not done long before. For many a long year, in Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, the chair maker had found an invaluable coadjutor in the upholsterer, who had done wonders to render his productions kindly and inviting to the body but, unless seats were imported from abroad, the physical frames of our countrymen and countrywomen had been compelled to extract what comfort they could, by the aid of loose cushions, from the hardest of oak, uncomfortable enough in itself, but rendered far worse by the vigorous ministrations of the carver, with his crude embellishments.
Woodworkers recommend springing the boards so they meet at the ends but gap slightly in the center. The board acts as a combination spring and caul, closing the gaps. I prefer using enough clamps to provide pressure at all points on the gluelines, as shown in c. In this example, I needed five clamps to get enough pressure. With a panel the same size and narrower boards, I would have needed even more clamps.
When customers inquire about having a piece of furniture made, it's part of my job to ascertain what quality of furniture they're looking for and to translate their desires into a dollar amount that will equal the time and materials needed to complete the piece. The quicker the joineiy and constaiction and the cheaper the materials, the less expensive the piece. The woodworker building furniture in his or her home shop faces this same dilemma. Regardless of your skill level, you must first decide how much time and materials are worth putting into a piece.
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A power drill can be found in most households and is probably the first power tool that most of us own. They are characterized by the capacity of the fitted chucks, which are available from 6in (2mm) for mini drills, to lin (25mm) for large industrial tools. For the home woodworker, a 3 8in (10mm) capacity will be big enough for most jobs. In general, the chuck size dictates the maximum twist drill-bit diameter that can be used. The exception to this is that some bits can be obtained with reduced shanks.
ParticJeboard (PB) and medium-density fiberboard (MDF) have become popular as a cabinet-making material in the commercial casework-industry and are now being accepted by the hobbyist woodworker. Some of you may have tried these composite boards when they were first introduced and may have been disappointed. But today's products are far superior to the early offerings.
Usually, when using a chisel, enough pressure can be applied by hand to cut effectively, but occasionally a few sharp raps with a mallet are required. Mallets come in a variety of weights and patterns. My preference is for a carver's type with a round head made from lignum vitae. Woodworkers' mallets with a rectangular head made from beech are just as effective, but not quite as nice to use.
Leaving the side panel in the vise, cut along the edges of the pins with a dovetail saw (left), working your way from one panel edge to the other. (Some woodworkers prefer to cut all the right-hand edges first, then all the left-hand edges.) Hold the panel steady and align the saw blade just to the waste side of the cutting line angle the saw toward the waste to avoid cutting into the pins. Use smooth, even strokes, allowing the saw to cut on the push stroke. Continue the cut just to the shoulder line, then repeat to saw the pins at the other end of the panel.
Since its first publication in 1970 The Technique of Furniture Making has established itself as the bible for all woodworkers. However, in nearly twenty years there have been considerable changes in the craft, and so this book has been revised thoroughly in order for it to continue to be as useful and relevant to today's furniture makers.
Look through a catalog of cabinet hardware and you'll find dozens of gadgets made for keeping doors shut. Nonetheless, many woodworkers create their own catches and latches because they're attractive, not difficult to make, and cost little. Another benefit is that you won't see any clunky metal hardware in the cabinet. We asked four woodworkers to show us how they keep cabinet doors closed. The solutions include hidden rare-earth magnets, a traditional Shaker spinner, a wooden flipper catch made popular by James Krenov, and a button catch. All of these clever devices look a lot better than most store-bought hardware, and they can be customized to fit your needs.
If you have access to a woodlot, you can fell your own trees using a chain saw. Otherwise, you may be able to obtain green logs from a sawmill, a local firewood supplier, or your local roads department. You can make an entire chair from hardwoods like hickory, white ash, or oak but many woodworkers also use softwoods such as poplar and pine for the seat, which are easier to shape with hand tools.
For hobbyists and woodworkers to avoid frustrating moisture problems. A lot of woodworkers fill smallish dings, dents, and splits with homemade putty made from sanding dust and wood glue. To make the putty less visible, I go a half-step further and use dust from the same species of wood that's getting filled. To ensure a ready source of different types of sawdust, I store dust from several common wood species in individual containers. A sawdust source is never a problem I just empty the dust-collection canister on my random-orbit sander after using it on a particular species of wood.
Not all Shaker work is particularly good. You'll see many Shaker pieces with shoddy, nailed joints and lots of visible saw marks. Even some of these cruder pieces, most likely built by Shaker farmers or other tradesmen filling in for trained woodworkers, have pleasing designs. If I were going to adapt one of these cruder pieces, perhaps one of the simple wall cabinets installed in many Shaker workshops, I would replace the dadoed-and-nailed joints with dovetails and probably add raised or flat panels for the cabinet doors, but strive to preserve the proportions and simplicity of the original. The major design sources for the Shakers undoubtedly were the same as those of their more worldly contemporaries mainly Sheraton, Hepplewhite, and country Chippendale styles. The Shakers simplified these designs greatly, though. If you examine fashionable early 19th-century pieces (Fine Points of Furniture, Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, shows quite a few), you see many that are strikingly...
There are many clever tools available to woodworkers hut none so clever as our brain, with its ability to learn, store and then apply accumulated knowledge. Just think for a moment about the information contained in this one issue. It goes a long way toward reaching fundamental information about working wood to build furniture and cabinets, but as experienced woodworkers know, there's still a lot more to learn. It's amazing to watch a woodworker's learning curve go from basic hammer-and-nail joinery to building a real cabinet that requires no nails or screws at all. How after the first few tentative cuts on the table saw, the woodworker's confidence grows with that bit of experience under his belt. When after completing a few simple projects, the woodworker starts to design her own projects, decid-ing which joints to use, what the dimensions should be, etc. Yes, we shouldn't overlook the brain when it comes to assessing our most important shop tools. Its capacity to learn and therv...
The basic tools of woodwork and the elementary processes of sawing, chiselling and smoothing wood are widely known, and detailed repetition is hardly necessary. What is of concern here is the specialized application of these basic techniques to the fabrication of project components, usually of small dimension, which will eventually become pieces of furniture. Therefore, although the tools employed and the methods of manipulating them are in principle the same as for any woodworking trade, the furniture-maker must always endeavour to work to precision limits. So although he may use the same kind of saw. chisel, plane, etc. as any other woodworker, the saw will tend to have finer teeth, the chisel will be of the lighter, bevelled edged variety, the smoothing-plane will be the standard tool but it will be keener and more finely set. In the main, therefore, his tools will be orthodox but more numerous they must be the very best of their respective kinds and he must be scrupulous in...
There's a woodworking technique that's not talked about much. Most of the time it's ignored as a legitimate way to join two pieces of wood. Indeed, most woodworkers go to great lengths to avoid using this technique, preferring more traditional methods. history. It would be easy to assume that the use of woodscrews is a relatively recent phenomenon a short-cut for the modem woodworker. Actually, wood-screws came into popular use around the turn of the twentieth century.
Having recently seen the sycamore pieces again - the couple who bought them have gone on to commission several more items -I'm still not sure whether I prefer the design in one timber or the other, but it reminded me what an amazingly versatile material we have available to us, as woodworkers.
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In a general sense, also, the art of the secular woodworker was centred in certain towns of importance, and radiated from them in a very traceable way. These principal towns where the trade traditions were fostered during the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were London, Bristol, Norwich, Ipswich, Coventry, Southampton, Exeter, Shrewsbury, Chester, York and Winchester. From these towns the apprentice-work was carried to adjoining country districts, and the original trade traditions were perpetuated, with little or 110 modifications, often for very long periods. It is, therefore, sometimes possible to postulate a sphere of origin with far more certainty than a date of manufacture, and we are compelled to limit a statement of period to the date when a certain style originated in one of the centres mentioned above.
The creation of the New Hampshire Furniture Masters Association completed the state's furniture-making hierarchy, said Terry Moore, a founding member of the Masters Association and the Guild. Woodworkers typically start in the Guild, work to get juried into the League and then work toward the Masters Association, he explained. The Masters group represents the highest level of craftsmanship, supporting the state's top furniture makers and giving up-and-coming woodworkers something to strive for. The League and the Masters Association are similar in that each has a juried show and demands more than one piece from a woodworker, but the Masters' jury process is tougher, and its deadlines, from proposal to delivery, are tighter. The Masters separates the men from the boys, Moore said. Members are expected to propose at least two new pieces each Feb. 1 and deliver the finished work by June 1 for the catalog photo session. They must also know how to price their work. The deadlines push...
Few decisions are as important to building outdoor furniture as the choice of wood. The chart below rates several species in terms of resistance to decay, strength, capacity to withstand shock, working properties (like planing and sanding or drilling, gluing, and fastening), and relative cost. There is probably no one ideal choice. Although a wood like teak combines strength with excellent decay resistance, it is very expensive, and difficult to find and work. Pine, on the other hand, is readily available and economical, and is easy to work, but most species are highly susceptible to decay and relatively weak. Many woodworkers consider native species with superior strength and decay resistance, such as cedar and white oak, to be an acceptable compromise.
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