Blueprints For Wood Projects

Ted's Woodworking Plans

Teds Woodworking is not just a simple book containing a lot of plans and ideas for woodcrafts. It is rather a complete set of several books which are vital for you to become a professional. The book contains detailed steps and guidelines for you to make proper wood crafts. These steps and techniques will guide you through each stage of the wood crafting, and will help you craft designs which are unique, attractive and cost effective. Each woodworking design that you will create will either beautify your home, or will give you a handsome amount of money in case you decide to sell the craft. In case you are planning to run your own woodworking business by selling various unique wood crafts, this book is ideal for you. This is because this book will guide you through the process of making your business successful, helping you earn lots of money through it. Read more here...

Tedswoodworking Plans Summary


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Solutions For The Serious Woodworker

Inside Passage School of Fine Woodworking When making Mission Style doors Amarta Tool* is the source for door making bits. We otter every type of door making bit you'll ever need including our innovative fnStile and Rail set shown here. The InStile & Rail set allows you to adjust the groove to fit today's undersized plywood. No more annoying panel rattle. Amana Tool* also offers a complete selection of Panel bits. The best way to predict how dimensions will change from season to season is to measure the wood movement in a board over the course of a year. For this purpose, I have a few moisture boards hanging in my shop. One is a wide, white-pine plank and another is a crosscut scrap from a cherry tabletop. I use the white pine to estimate the movement in drawer bottoms and case backs its movement is similar to that of basswood and aspen, other woods I use for those tasks. Cherry moves much like other hardwoods. Woodworker II Best rated, all-purpose blade for rips and crosscuts The...

Types of plywood construction

I have mentioned plywood a number of times, and it occurs to me that you might possibly be laboring under the illusion that plywood is plywood, and that one is like another. Nothing could be further from the truth. Plywood is constructed in several different ways, and there are various grades and classifications. All plywood constructions have Fig. 521. Cut-away view of the internal construction of y4-inch veneer-core plywood. Fig. 521. Cut-away view of the internal construction of y4-inch veneer-core plywood. this much in common they consist of a number of layers of wood bonded together to make up the full thickness, whatever that may be, of the resulting panel. Starting from one side and going through the thickness of the plywood panel, you will find that all plywoods are made with the grain of each layer running at right angles to the previous layer. Within the framework of these general similarities, there are several different ways of making plywood. The first and most common...

Cutting Plywood To Length

I used this same fence to help cut the piece of plywood used on the headboard. The problem with cutting this plywood piece to final size is actually twofold. First it's a long and wide piece that's difficult to handle. And to make matters worse, it has to be cut to very close tolerances to fit tight To make this cut, I used the following procedure. First, I cut the plywood to rough length about 1 longer than needed. Here again I used the fence on the miter gauge to help guide the plywood. After it's cut to rough length, mark the final length on one edge. Then, with the table saw turned off, place the plywood against the fence, push it up to the blade, and line up the mark with one tooth on the blade. When the cut is lined up, clamp a stop block to the fence at the other end of the plywood. Then as the plywood is fed through the blade, gently push it so it's tight against the stop.

Plywood Threeply Multiply

The technique of gluing together thin sheets of wood in a balanced construction with each layer crossed at right angles so that the wood grains are locked in position, effectively preventing all shrinkages across the width, dates from the seventeenth century, but it was only in 1896 that plywood was commercially produced for cheap tea-chests. Since then ceaseless development has produced a bonded sheet which is completely free from lamination, and which is generally available in thicknesses from 1 32 in (0.8 mm) to 1 in (25 mm), in a range of qualities for every purpose. which is still used for three-layer construction. Plywoods with more than three layers are usually classed as multiply, although the term 'five-ply' is sometimes used for five-layer construction. Obviously, the layers or veneers of which the ply is composed must be relatively thin or the strength of the timber and its tendency to shrink and distort will be greater than the strength of the bonding adhesive therefore...

Plywood and related materials

Plywood consists of layers of thin veneers or plies glued together under huge pressure with the grain directions at right-angles in each successive layer. This allows the production of large sheets of dimensionally stable material in which most properties are approximately equalized across the surface with the strength of wood parallel to the grain predominating. Shrinkage and swelling are very small, being about 0.18 along the grain and 0.27 across it over the range of 7-20 moisture content (Joyce, 1970). Normally an uneven number of plies is used to give a balanced construction but even-numbered plywoods, in which the grain of the central pair of veneers is parallel, are made. Plywood is highly resistant to splitting parallel to the face grain but splits relatively easily in its thickness. Although cross-ply laminations of wood are known from antiquity, plywood made from thin veneers and used as a substitute for solid wood is essentially a modern material that owes much to the...

Reconstituted wood products

The desire to extend and modify natural wood sizes and properties and the need to use manufacturing waste and residues and smaller and lower grade trees to produce more versatile and more consistent products has lead to a vast array of materials known as wood composites or reconstituted wood products. Wood composites can be broadly grouped into fibre products on one hand and solid wood composites on the other. In solid wood composites, often referred to as particle boards, particles, chips, flakes, shavings and other reduced dimensions of whole wood are re-bonded using a resin adhesive. These materials are classified by particle type, by adhesive type, by density, and by strength. Uniform properties and reduced dimensional response are typical of these materials but increasingly they are being engineered for specific purposes. See Schniewind (1989) for further information.

Redwood Cedar Cypress

Three kinds of wood are well suited for outdoor uses Redwood, Western Red Cedar, and Bald Cypress. The heart wood of all three of these s ecies has a high natural resistance to decay, which makes them ideal for outdoor projects. Redwood and Bald Cypress are also termite resistant (the little rascals just don't like the taste of the natural extratlvcs in the wood) I'd like to make a few comments about each of these woods First, rrduixxl. I don't think you can beat clear, all heart redwood for building outdoor furniture, it just has a natural beauty that seems to say outiloors . California Redwood comes in seven grades, though most lumher yards carry only two Clear, All Heart (sometimes called finish gradei. and Construction Common. Clear. All Heart redwood is the top of the line. It's cut from the heart of the tree and should contain no sapwood and no knots on the face side (though there may lie one or two on the reverse side). This grade is quite expensive (it runs about SI.20 a...

Combine Redwood And Canvas For Outdoor Relaxation

Once the weather turns warm, everyone start* dusting off their lawn furniture. With most lawn furniture you have two choices aluminum frames and plastic web. or bulky redwood and plastic pads. In either case, when that plastic sits out in the sun for a few hours, it gets hot enough to bake your bottom side. The chair shown here meets my requirements for comfort plus it's a no-waste design. All you need (in the way of wood) are two 2x4-6' and a 1 dowel 4 long There's less than 2 of waste to build the whole chair. (Considering the cost of redwood, tnat makes it extra comfortable to your back pocket, i If you want to buy 8' 2x4 (instead of the 6-footersi you'll have enough left over to build the camp stool so you can prop your feet up.

Wood anatomy softwoods

Draw Pic Softwood Cells

The cell structure of softwoods is relatively simple compared to that of the hardwoods (see Figure 2.4). Most of the cells found in conifer among coniferous species, with a corresponding diameter range of approximately 20-60 pm (1 pm 0.001 mm). The relative diameter of tracheids is a basis for classifying texture among conifers. Texture can be estimated by how clearly individual tracheids can be seen on a cross-sectional surface with a hand lens, and is therefore a valuable aid in wood identification. For example yew (Taxus spp.) is fine textured, redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is coarse textured. (E). (b) Hardwood cell types Vessel elements (A) may vary in shape and size. In hardwoods, tracheids (B) serve an intermediate function between vessel elements and fibres. Fibres (C) are long, slender straight cells that, in comparison to vessel elements, are smaller in size and have thick cell walls. They impart strength to the wood. Parenchyma cells, used for transport and storage, may be...

Woodworking materials

The acacia was probably the most widely used of the native trees. Evidence of its use by woodworkers can be traced throughout the Dynastic Period. It was used not only in the making of furniture but also in boatbuilding and large constructional projects. A number of tomb and temple scenes showing the acacia survive. A piece of wood from W. M. Flinders Petrie's excavations at Kahun in 1895 is preserved in the museum of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, where botanists have confirmed its identification as acacia. these new timbers reached Egypt during the Old Kingdom, the quality of woodworking improved. Plywood The technique of laminating thin sheets of timber, with the grain of one sheet being at right angles to the next, was known to Egyptian carpenters. An example of this early 'plywood' was discovered in a passage within the Step Pyramid complex of Djoser at Saqqara. This piece dates to the Third Dynasty and possibly forms part of the side panel of a coffin. It is an example of...

Cell structure hardwoods

In comparing the anatomy of the hardwoods with that of the softwoods several general differences are apparent. There are many more cell types present in hardwoods, and there is more variation in their arrangement. Rays in hardwoods vary widely in size, from invisibly small to conspicuous to the eye. Hardwoods do not have resin canals as such but may have gum canals in rays. Hardwood trees have evolved specialized conductive cells called vessel elements, which are distinct in having relatively large diameters and thin cell walls (see Figure 2.4). They form in the tree in end-to-end series in which the end walls become perforated, thus forming continuous vessels ideal for sap conduction. Vessel elements stand out as the largest diameter cells in a given hardwood species. When vessels are cut transversely, the exposed open ends are referred to as pores. Pores vary in size among and within species. In certain woods such as chestnut and oak the largest pores up to 300 pm in diameter can be...

Grading and classification of plywood

Grading Classification

Clear distinction must be drawn between the grading of ply, which is concerned only with the quality of the face veneers, and the classification into groups or types, which is concerned with the nature of the bonding adhesive and the durability of the actual wood used. Hitherto plywoods were loosely grouped into interior and exterior qualities, but these terms are fairly meaningless. Admittedly, furniture-makers do not require weather-resistant plywoods, but they must be confident that the plies are well bonded and will not laminate, and that they will withstand bacterial and fungoid attack therefore the type of bonding medium used is of importance. It is, for instance, hardly sufficient to describe a plywood as well-glued or resin-bonded, for the former term may include weak vegetable glues, while the latter may be so extended with fillers compounded of cereal flours, etc. that the implicit moisture-resistant properties are lost. plywoods or veneered chipboards (A cross grained B...

Repair Chipped Plywood

If the top is made of plywood, and only a layer or two of the plywood has broken away, follow the same procedure as for a whole solid wood corner, but do not cut away that part of the top which remains unless it is cracked or badly damaged. Use This is another view of the wood glued to the repair area Note that it has been shaped somewhat to fit the opening Now an oversized piece of hardwood is glued in place Be sure the wood piece is large enough so that it can be shaped to match the contours of the wood around it. This is another view of the wood glued to the repair area Note that it has been shaped somewhat to fit the opening Now an oversized piece of hardwood is glued in place Be sure the wood piece is large enough so that it can be shaped to match the contours of the wood around it.

Saracenic Woodwork From Cairo and Damascus

The carved pulpit, from a mosque in Cairo, which is in the South Kensington Museum, was made for Sultan Kaitbeg, 1468-96. The side panels, of geometrical pattern, though much injured by time and wear, shew signs of ebony inlaid with ivory, and of painting and gilding they are good specimens of the kind of work. The two doors, also from Cairo, the oldest parts of which are just two hundred years earlier than the pulpit, are exactly of the same style, and, so far as appearances go, might be just as well taken for two hundred years later, so conservative was the Saracenic treatment of decorative woodwork for some four or five centuries. Pentagonal and hexagonal mosaics of ivory, with little mouldings of ebony dividing the different panels, the centres of eccentric shapes of ivory or rosewood carved with minute scrolls, combine to give these elaborate doors a very rich effect, and remind one of the work still to be seen at the Alhambra. The illustration on p. 142 is of a carved wood door...

Woodcraft Retail Franchises

Are you passionate about woodworking Want to own your own business Willing to make a substantial investment in your future Woodcraft is looking for the right individuals to join our franchise team. Contact us today for more information WOODCRAFT SUPPLY CORP. Circle No. 924. THE WOODWORKING SHOWS Three days of can't miss education and savings Learn about the latest hard-to-find tools, equipment, and supplies. Attend seminars for every skill level. Save on everything for your shop. Forty-two shows this season. THE WOODWORKING SHOWS. Circle No. 934.

Screws For Woodworking

A few years ago drywall screws grabbed the attention of woodworkers. They go in faster, hold tighter, and don't require the typical pilot hole, shank hole, and countersink needed by regular wood screws. This feature attracted woodworkers because you could drive them straight into hardwoods (even with no pilot hole) and they wouldn't break or twist apart. (Although this process is fast, it's probably not the best procedure. More on this later.) double-lead thread has twice as many threads, it tends to hold better, particularly in softwoods.

Metalwork For Woodworkers

Few woodworkers have fully equipped metalworking shops, but for anyone with a metalworklng lathe then these little plugs present no problems. For those, like me, who don't have such equipment then a little bit of metalwork, especially in something as easy to work as aluminium, can be accomplished with woodworking tools. With this setup it is easy to run round the template, just cutting into the scrap wood - repeat to make the five ribs. When they are ready, screw the ribs onto a blockboard or chipboard base from underneath. The door is built by laminating three layers of 3mm (Kin) plywood. The two outer laminates are oak faced on one side only, though for convenience many will take all three layers out of the same sheet. First make a template, which can be approximately sawn from a plywood offcut which must be just thicker than the depth of your router's guide bush. Pin the rib material to scrap plywood or blockboard and then pin the template on top. Hinges will not screw to the...

Kentish Woodwork Types

Richard Legh

It is merely an example of the school of designing and carving which both helped to found, as exemplified in much of the woodwork in St. Paul's Cathedral and elsewhere. The Renaissance of the South-West, whether in clerical or in secular woodwork, is nearly always richer in detail than in the East of England. It is also, as a rule, exceedingly varied, yet possessing marked characteristics which are typical and recognisable. Such examples as the fine Wrey pew in Tawstock Church, Fig. 68, may be cited as representative of the expression of the French Renaissance in Devonshire, examples of which have already been illustrated in the Exeter panellings, Figs. 312 to 316, Vol. I. So closely was the style assimilated, and so fine in execution and full in design are manv of these Devonshire examples, that the hand of the French carver and designer has often been suspected, and with reason. In spite of this foreign character, very strong in such details as the balusters supporting the tester of...

Bosch Woodworking Tools

Jigsaws, routers, sanders, planers, benchtop tools, dust collection and accessories make up Bosch Woodworking Tools. Send for more information about the full line of precision equipment. BOSCH POWER TOOLS AND ACCESSORIES. Circle No. 173. CMT CUTTING TOOLS CATALOG CMT stands for high performance router bits, saw blades, spiral bits, boring bits and more. CMT USA, Inc. The only orange one. CMT USA, INC. Circle No. 180. CONNECTICUT VALLEY MFG. CO. The world's finest Forstner bits. Offered in 1 16 sizes from 1 4 to 1 1 2 , 1 8 sizes to 3 . Special sizes on request. CONNECTICUT VALLEY MFG. CO. Circle No. 183. EAGLE AMERICA WOODWORKING CATALOG Features the largest selection of professional quality American-made router bits. 100's of unique accessories. 100 total satisfaction guaranteed. EAGLE AMERICA CORP. Circle No. 193. FORREST SAW BLADES


The Magazine for all Interested In Wood work in workshop or in the home Tbo WOODWORKER Magazine has taught thousands of pn how io use their spare time profitably. Each article is written by an c pcrt, and hi clear instruction and detailed diagrams enable even the least experienced to obtain good results. Every man who is interested in woodwork in home or workshop, and who wishes lo keep abreast of latest ideas should sec ihts journal each month.


Plywood is made from a number of slices of veneer which are laminated with glue to bond them together. Each layer of veneer is turned with the grain direction at 90 to that of the adjacent layers (see Fig 2.7). As a guide, good quality ply consists of a comparatively high number of thin slices of veneer, while low quality ply has a relatively small number of thick layers. Plywood is available in a wide variety of sheet sizes, thicknesses and wood types, each intended for different applications. The thickness ranges from ' i6m (2mm), intended for model-making, to at least lin (25mm), which I have seen used for table tennis tops. Both hardwoods and softwoods are used for furniture making, a softwood ply with a slice of high quality hardwood on the face is often a good choice. Plywood has a number of advantages over large boards made from joining solid wood planks. Strength, flexibility and price are among its assets, but the principal benefit is stability, as it will not shrink or...

Bending plywoods etc

Fairly stiff resin-bonded plywood to WBP specification can be bent more readily if one side is wetted, or conversely the other side heated. Much depends on the thickness and number of plies, the direction of the bend in relation to the grain direction of the stout hearted core, and to the timber species of which the plywood is composed, therefore actual tests are necessary. If the plywood sheet is too stiff to take the curve two or more sheets of thin plywood to make up the thickness can be glued and bent between simple formers forms or merely stapled together as practised in boat hull building, for each sheet becomes concentric and the adhesive will lock the fibres and hold the curve. An admirable plywood for this purpose is Vi6 in (1.5 mm) birch three-ply, readily obtainable, which can be rolled up like a sheet of thin cardboard. Heat softening of wood was well known to traditional craftsmen, who bent their boxwood lines for delicate inlay (purffing) by repeatedly passing them over...


Strong, with a fine texture and pleasing grain, it takes finishes nicely and wears well. It doesn't warp or shrink easily. The raw wood has a gray-brown look that turns to a rich brown on the application of a clear finish. Furniture makers often apply stain to get a warmer or darker color. If you must strip the finish from a walnut piece and want to refinish in the same color as the original, be sure to identify the color of the stain before stripping. Otherwise, you may not be able to duplicate it. Wood comes in two types softwoods and hardwoods Softwoods dent and gouge more easily than hardwoods hardwoods are more difficult to work with This piece is hardwood Wood comes in two types softwoods and hardwoods Softwoods dent and gouge more easily than hardwoods hardwoods are more difficult to work with This piece is hardwood Other Hardwoods In addition to the fine hardwoods just listed, there are a number of utilitarian hardwoods. These have good hardwood characteristics as far...

Hardwood Furniture

But in the past couple of years, a revolution has taken place in unfinished pieces. Hardwoods such as oak began to appear. Boxy designs began to be replaced by true furniture designs, some even based on good period pieces. For example, you can now buy round oak pedestal dining tables typical of tables produced just after the turn of the century, and the chairs to go with them. Old-line furniture manufacturers such as Kroehler and Norwalk have added whitewood (the trade designation for unfinished furniture) pieces to their lines, and good furniture stores in major cities (for example. Homcmakers, a division of John M. Smyth, and Marshall Fields, both in Chicago) have begun showing excellent unfinished hardwood furniture in a variety of pleasing designs.

The Softwoods

The softwoods have a variety of interesting characteristics, some of which give them unusual furniture values. Cedar, with its distinctive and agreeable odor, has been used for generations to make chests for the storage of clothes and linens. Redwood is naturally resistant to rot and decay as well as attractive in color, and therefore is used in outdoor furniture. Knotty pine, the wood from the center of the pine tree, has been recognized almost as a species of wood, and a whole class of furniture and wall paneling has been created from it. Visit a store which sells unfinished furniture and you will find a variety of pieces in pine and fir. Stores that feature Colonial and Early American designs have elegant replicas of old pieces in these same softwoods. When you buy furniture in softwood, or decide to restore one of these pieces, remember that in exchange tor a lower price and easy working qualities, you give up toughness and durability. But there is a soft, glowing, warm charm to...

Fine Woodworking

Sagging Bookshelf Creep

You can make them free standing or built-in. They can be big or small. And they can take any form, from simple screwed-together and painted plywood for use in a utility room, to sophisticated formal library shelves made from beautiful hardwoods. In extreme cases (loading a bookcase with your anvil collection, for example), shelves can deflect so much that the wood actually fails. This is not a common worry. More common, especially on long shelves, is that sag causes the effective length of the shelf to become shorter, causing it to slip off the shelf supports. Or, too much weight on a long shelf can cause some adjustable shelf supports to caish the wood fibers in the case sides. As a result, the supports tilt downward. Jeff Miller builds furniture and teaches woodworking in Chicago.

Woodworker Handyman

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Berea Hardwoods

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Plywood grades

Additionally the United Africa Company grade their Cresta plywoods under Gold, Silver and Blue labels. Construction is the same throughout, and the grading refers to the face appearance only. The bonding is phenolic resin to WBP specification, and every sheet is impregnated against insect attack (lyctus, furniture beetle, termites, etc.), which does not affect the gluing or polishing properties. In practice it is not wise to go below BIBB, BB or grade 2 for veneering, while Douglas fir ply is altogether unsuitable owing to the upraised grain, and therefore grading rules for this particular kind of ply have not been included. It can be assumed that, unless specifically stated, all plywoods are dry glued, i.e. the veneers dried before gluing, and that except for the very lowest grades not suitable for furniture both the face and reverse are sanded flat for immediate use. Plywood dimensions In all usual sizes the length of the face grains is given first, irrespective of the length of the...

Preface To The Series

This series consists of five volumes, four of which are intended as textbooks for pupils in manual-training, industrial, trade, technical, or normal schools. The fifth book of the series, the Handbook in Woodwork and Carpentryis for the use of teachers and of normal students who expect to teach the subjects treated in the other four volumes. Of the pupils' volumes, the first two, Elements of Woodwork and Elements of Construction, are adapted to the needs of students in manual-training schools, or in any institution in which elementary woodwork is taught, whether as purely educational handwork, or as preparatory to a high, or trade, school course in carpentry or vocational training.

Rules for Planing to Dimensions

The nature of the piece of woodwork that is to be done determines the method to be used in squaring up mill-planed stock. Your instructor will provide specific directions for the order of procedure until you have acquired the ability to see for yourself the correct method to be used.


An experience, somewhat extended, in teaching academic branches of learning as well as woodworking, has convinced the author that the most effective teaching of woodworking can be accomplished only when its content is made a subject of as diligent study as is that of the other and older branches. Such a study necessitates the use, by the student, of a textbook. The selection of a suitable text is made difficult because of the fact that tool processes are usually treated in connection either with models or exercises. It is hardly to be expected that any one set of models or of exercises, tho they may be of very great value, will fill the needs of varying local school conditions. The production of a textbook which shall deal with tool processes in a general way without reference to any particular set of models or exercises is the author's aim. It is believed that such a text will prove suitable wherever the essentials of woodworking shall be taught, whether in grammar, high school or...

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Sanding Doweling Joinery Techniques

Words like dado and phrases such as mortise and tenon worry people who haven't been around woodworking. These are descriptions Of popular wood joining methods, but they have a complicated ring. They make the joints they describe sound difficult when they actually arc not. To begin with, there are only eight basic joining methods in woodworking. Through the centuries, woodworkers have tried various ways to join pieces of wood so the joints would be both durable and attractive, and only eight basic joint formations have survived. Five of these arc commonly used in furniture making because they have proven their value. As one venerable master cabinet maker told us, These must be good, because we have been working on them for 6.0(H) years.

Tormek Sharpening And Honing System

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Chapter Combining Operations

These seemingly magic machines actually exist and are available from several reputable vendors. They have not been generally considered as a viable alternative to traditional woodworking machines but instead they have been treated as a special machine of their own. These machines are the CNC router or CNC machining centers as some companies call them. Initially, CNC routers were just that, routers. These machines today, however, are routinely equipped with a wide variety of processing heads and can perform all the operations needed to complete most furniture parts in a single cycle. There is a general understanding that this technology exists, however, there also exists a feeling that substituting a high priced CNC router for more traditional, lower cost woodworking machines is cost prohibitive. CNC routers appear to process parts slower than more traditional machines and there exists a concern that an adequate level of production would be difficult to achieve. Rather than generalize...

Floor Cost Cost of Factory Space Carrying Cost of Inventory

Most of these factors have very little effect when production runs are very long and they have generally been discarded as immaterial. When production lots become smaller as they have done in the woodworking industry, these factors actually become dominant. If you ignore them, you will be totally unable to see major potential for improvement.

Assembly And Finishing

1 Fit all the drawers into the carcass and stick the false fronts on to them with some form of temporary adhesive, such as double-sided sticky tape, so that they can be moved until an exact fit is obtained. When their position is satisfactory, from the inside of the drawers mark the screw positions on the backs of the drawer fronts with a bradawl. Take the pine,, fronts from the drawers and apply some woodworking glue, then screw them to the plywood drawer fronts in the marked positions. Fix two knobs to each drawer front. 3 Cut the drawer fronts to size and length and work the decorative groove using a router with a 'V'-groove cutter. Chamfer the face of the front between the decorative groove and the edge with a plane, and clean up the corners of the 'V' grooves with a sharp chisel. In the front pieces of the plywood drawers, make holes for the screws that will join them to the false fronts.

Install The Door And Check The

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Mortise and tenon joints

These are probably the best known of all woodworking joints. The variations are many and only the principles and the main types need be given. All tenoned work follows the same general principles. The width of the mortises is slightly over one-third the thickness of the stile (142 5) but pitched according to the width of the hand-or power-chisel available. The rail width in corner mortising is also divided into three, one-third for the haunch or seating and two-thirds for the tenon, less a bare 1 16 in (1.5 mm) shoulder at the bottom edge to cover any slight gap caused by a slack tenon or bruising of the mortise socket end in levering out the waste in hand-methods. The final width of the tenon itself less the haunch becomes the length of the mortise cut to receive it. In all framed-up work it is always better to provide an extra length to the stiles to form a horn (142 1) at top and bottom which helps to prevent the splitting of soft wood while deeply mortising, and also to protect...

Design Determines Joinery

Bed designs may vaiy widely, but sound constaiction is a critical part of any design's success. Fortunately, there aren't too many structural issues to deal with. First, you have to figure out the best way to support the mattress and box spring. Also, because most beds need to be transportable, they must come apart quickly and easily, and when put back together be rigid and silent. That means you must choose the best systems for joining the rails to the posts and the posts to the headboard. I've built countless beds during my woodworking career. Using the techniques I've learned, you can make any style of bed.

Tools and techniques of conversion and construction

There have been great advances in the application of woodworking machines to furniture-making, but no really major advances in machine type. Accuracy and speed increased through the mechanical adaptation of hand operations powered by various independent sources, and by the electrification of hand tools. However, many furniture-making operations remain a mix between machine processes and hand work. Various techniques have been adopted in particular fields to match materials development with technical competence. The Thonet company adapted their experience in bending wood to producing bent metal furniture. Other developments outside the industry also contributed to change. Developments in both World Wars had an effect on furniture production, these included changes in factory management, the increase in the range of new materials, the de-skilling of labour and the application of technology once unrelated to furniture-making. For example, the Chrysler Corporation's experience of cycle...

Analyzing The Situation

Buy a piece of hardwood of the proper wood and size and make a new chair rail. Cut tenons on each end of the new rail after trimming it to the right size then fit the new tenons into the existing mortises. 2. Another and probably more practical method is to make a tenon to replace the broken one. This is best because you can reuse the original chair rail. You obviously can't cut a new tenon on the end of the old chair rail, but you can chisel a mortise into the rail to match the mortise in the back post. Then, shape a hardwood tenon to fit into both mortises to make a kind of super dowel. This method does work. 3. A third possiblity occdrs you could fill the mortise in the back post by cutting a plug of hardwood to fill it. Glue the plug in place. Now join the rail and the back post with dowels. This example describes a very common occurrence in furniture repair and provides you with two insights (I ) you must be prepared to analyze repair situations in order to consider alt possible...

Processing Cost parts part

Furniture manufacturers typically focus on both machine cost and processing speed as the key elements in determining the best machine for their applications. In this example we have shown that set-up time is a more important consideration even though this is typically ignored in evaluating woodworking machines. We used a machine price that is 50 higher with only one advantage, faster set-up. This machine produced parts at a substantially lower processing cost than the standard machine even though the standard machine was significantly less expensive.

Reacting to constructive criticism

78 FINE WOODWORKING He told me about one woodworker active in Guild who entered a Queen Anne chair for consideration by the League. The cabriole legs were well done, but they were not highly polished, and there were gaps in the joinery where the legs met the crest rail. Overall, there simply was not enough attention paid to detail.

By Michael P E Kov Ic H

I had been floundering in art school for a couple of years when I stumbled into a beginning woodworking class. One of my first projects was a simple pencil box with a sliding lid. At wits' end for a way to secure the lid (short of tying it closed), I approached my instructor, John Snidecore, who showed me a simple, spring-loaded wood button catch. To make the button, simply chuck a short length of hardwood dowel into a drill press. With a file in hand, it's quick work Michael Pekovich, a longtime woodworker, is the art director of Fine Woodworking.

The Formula Software Package

In the world of high volume production, most woodworking managers have a fairly accurate personal intuition about costs. When batch sizes get smaller, however, that intuition either doesn't exist or provides faulty guidance. In this chapter we are going to try and develop some accurate guiding principals about variations in modern woodworking plants. What happens to costs when set-up time changes, or cycle time changes, or machine cost changes or labor cost changes Is it more important to have faster set-up or faster cycle time

Chipcarved Chest Of Elm And

The sixteenth century witnessed the abrupt decline of the line earlier Gothic traditions, after the destruction of the monasteries began in 1530. The Gothic lingered, but the earlier guidance of the Church is clearly absent in the woodwork produced after this date. Such a decline can be explained by no other hypothesis than the dispersal of the former knowledge and taste, with the abolition of the monastic houses. It is at this period that we get crude Gothic ornament of cusped tracery, coupled with still cruder construction, which might cause one to imagine that these examples were the forerunners of much of the fine woodwork of the fifteenth century. There are later methods visible in many of these pieces, however, such as the scratch-moulding of the upright styles of Fig. 36 for example, which show that mere crudity is no necessary indication of age. The construction here is from solid boards, without framing, uprights nailed to the sides in the manner of the early chests, and the...

Tenon And Crosscutting Jigs For Circular Saws

Bob Wearing, in his book Making Woodwork Aids & Devices, has an excellent jig for cutting the cheeks of tenons. It uses the mitre-guide slots on a table saw, and is quite sophisticated in that it allows angled tenons to be cut. A simpler version could be made for 90 only operation. Once made the jig can be tested for accuracy by gauging a wide piece of scrap wood, then running it in the jig, adjusting until it is cut parallel with the gauged line. A cross-cutting box can also be made using the bed slots of a table saw.This is also made from plywood, the size depends on your saw. Start with the runners these should be made to fit slightly below the level of the table, so that when they are screwed to the base they will ride free of the bottom of the groove. Once cut to size, put the base board against the rip fence - this will make sure it is square to the bed slots -then with the runners in their slots mark out and drill the screw holes. Screw and glue the runners in place, then make...

Drawer Glides And Hardware

Modern hardware now gives us the opportunity to vary drawer styles and construction methods. Side- and bottom-mount glides with three-quarter and full-extension capabilities, along with positive stops and closing features, have opened a world of design opportunities. Low-cost metal drawer glide sets, which consist of two bottom-mount drawer runners and two cabinet tracks, are simple to install. Installing the new drawer hardware demands special attention to the drawer body width, as most of the hardware requires very precise clearances to operate properly. Otherwise, building high-quality drawers is well within the abilities of any woodworker or hobbyist.

Oak And Pearwood Dole Cupboard

The woodworker copied the stonemason very closely in the early periods. It is probable, of course, that these round shafts were fashioned by hand, without the use of the lathe at all, and this is further suggested by the fact that the diamond-sectioned mullion, or shaft, rapidly ousts the turned column in the screens of the later years of the fourteenth century, and round balusters or shafts do not appear again. The diamond or square section would be obtained by workmanlike means, with the tools of that date, whereas round shafts, in the absence of the lathe, would be troublesome to pro-Esq. duce, with very little decorative

Southwold Suffolk Chancel Screen

Show the same manner perpetuated in this pictorial decoration of Church woodwork. One of these panels, representing the Crucifixion, is shown here in Fig. 92. It forms the south wing of the reredos. There is the same intricacy in the patterning of the gesso ground as at Norwich Cathedral, but in a more free and flowing manner. The drawing of the figure of Christ is less archaic, as one would expect at this date. St. Michael-at-Plea possessed a magnificent screen in earlier times, of which this panel may have formed a part. Of this screen nothing now remains, if we except these panels. In 1504 the will of Katherine, widow of Alderman Thomas Bew field, leaves 5 marks for the painting and gilding of the rood-loft. A mark or mark of gold weighed eight ounces at this date, and was in value sixteen pounds, thirteen shillings and fourpence in the coin of this time, a large sum in the reign of Henry VII and up to the date when his son began to debase the coinage, as in those days money...

Key To The Illustration On Opposite Page

Xo better conditions could have prevailed for the execution of works which should persist as monuments of art and craftsmanship as long as materials lasted. The Church created its own artisans, its masons, sculptors, carvers or joiners and employed them on its own works under the skilled direction of its prelates. That these craftsmen were lay brothers or monks is probable certainly they seem to have either disappeared when the monasteries were suppressed, or to have lost their skill both in designing and in executing. Possibly when the higher dignitaries of the Church came under the baneful notice of Wolsey and Cromwell, and many, as at Reading, Colchester and Glastonbury, perished at their hands, the guiding spirit of English architecture and woodwork took wings and fled.1 The guiding and directing influence of the Church is very apparent in such woodwork and furniture prior to 1520, which has persisted to the present day, and its absence is equally noticeable in the later work....

Coatings functions and properties

The general term coating is used here for any fluid organic material used to provide a continuous coat or cover on furniture and woodwork. It includes both clear or lightly coloured coatings commonly called varnishes and pig-mented coatings called paints. Coatings may be applied to protect the surface of an object but are often of the utmost importance in themselves since it is the outer film or finish that visually represents an object to the viewer. Coatings are often encountered as systems of surface decoration (e.g. gilding, lacquer) rather than single materials. Therefore, a discussion of the general nature, function and properties of coatings is followed by an account of the structure of some common types of surface decoration and the preparations making up the layers found in them. This discussion covers primarily those coatings intended for interior use.

Style In Furniture

The dark age of the early-Victorian period, have been cut down ' and the various parts have undergone transformation into other articles. The pillars have, more often than not, been converted into graceful pedestals for the reception and support of candelabra, lamps, busts, small statuary, and other ornamental knick-knacks. It may perhaps strike us as a pity that this should have been done, and some may regard it as an act of vandalism but we cannot fail to recognise that they admirably serve the new purpose to which they have been put. It must be remembered, too, that even were the complete four poster obtainable, the most ardent of private collectors would find it somewhat of a white elephant if it had to be accommodated within the limits of the average villa residence'7 of to-day. It was evidently Chippendale's aim in designing his bedsteads to endow them with as great an appearance of imposing grandeur as possible, and he relied for effect almost as much on the draping with which...

The Louisquatorze

Powerful divergent beams, clearly indicates for whom the apartment was designed. The furniture, to which this painted and gilded woodwork forms a setting, calls for no special comment beyond that already made, save that I may point out that a comparison of the legs of the pier table with some of the earlier forms of the Chippendale chair leg, may be instituted with results both interesting and instructive.

Contour Enrichment Lightness And Gracioune

As styles move on, as new methods and new uses for old materials emerge, we see the advent of bent wood construction. By virtue of its process of formation, bent wood must have curves its construction allows extensive piercing of the volume. Combine these factors and you have the air of graciousness and lightness so characteristic of bent wood furniture. With these characteristics, this type of furniture functions well in the recreation room, on the large porch, or the out-of-doors terrace and garden, and improvement in design may qualify it for the living room.

Constructive Features And Effect On Pattern Duraluminum Bolts And Screws

Fio. 121. console j'anotubular aluminum bakelite and plywood . Metal and Wood Construction Aluminum, stainless steel, or monel metal tubing similar to the material used in Figure 121 is cut for corners as shown in Figure 118, while the tubing is held in place as indicated in Figure 119. Wooden plugs driven into the tubing are used in holding secure the T joint of Figure 120. The growing use of masonite and plywoods for construction make for

Constructing the Cabinet Frame

Cut two cabinet sides (A) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood according to the dimensions given in Figure 1. 2. Cut one cabinet back (B) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood according to the dimensions given in Figure 2. 3. Cut two cabinet shelves (C) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood, each measuring 23 by 34-1 2 inches.

The Cabinet Sides

To build this night stand, I started with the side frames, which consist of a plywood panel with edging strips on the front and back edges. PANEL. First, cut two plywood panels (A) to size 14 wide by 23 iV' long. Then to attach the web frames and bottom shelf, three grooves are cut across the inside face on both plywood panels. The top groove is positioned 1 Via down from the top edge of the plywood panel. This allows for the ' -long tongue on top groove, I clamped a fence to the plywood and used a hand-held router. tongues. After the grooves are cut, Vi'-long tongues are cut on the front, back, and top edges of the plywood panels. Since these tongues will have to fit W'-wide grooves routed in the edging strips, I routed a groove in a test piece to gauge the thickness of the tongues. Then to cut the tongues, I used a bit in the router table, see Steps 1 and 2 in Fig. 1. Set the fence to cut a W-wide rabbet on both faces of the plywood. Acijust the depth of cut until the resulting...

Cut Grooves To Match Tongues On Cabinet Sides

The frame and panel for the top of the cabinet consists of a plywood panel with edging strips on all four sides. the panel. The first step is to cut the plywood panel (D) to size so it's 13VV wide and 17W long. rails. To make the frame, rip the front back rails (E) from 5 4 stock so they're 1 wide, (Note This width may have to be altered to make sure the top assembly is the same width as the side frame.) Then trim the rails to length to match the shoulder-to-shoulder length of the plywood panel, see Fig. 2. GROOVES LN AILS. To attach the rails (E) to the plywood panel, rout a IVx W groove on the inside edge of each piece, see Step 1 in Fig. 2, Position these grooves so the faces of the rails are flush with the face of the plywood panel. assembly. Finally, the rails and stiles can be glued to the plywood panel. Then after the frame is assembled, cut a -wide bevel on the front of the frame, see Cross Section in Fig. 2. PLYWOOD

Cut and edge the shelves then finish your cabinet

ICut the walnut plywood shelves (R) and front and back strips (S) to size plus 1 in length. 1 4 x 48 x 96 Walnut plywood 1 4 x 48 x 96 Walnut plywood 3 4 x 48 x 96 Walnut plywood 'Initially cut parts marked with an * oversize. Trim to finished size according to the how-to instructions. Materials Key WP-walnut plywood, W-walnut, LW-laminated walnut. Supplies dowel pins 1 1 2 long, 8x1 vi flathead wood screws, 8x1 ' 2 flathead wood screws, 4 finish nails, 3A x17 brads, 5 8x72 flush-mounted shelf standards (walnut finish) with mounting brads and supports, finish.

Notes on the Materials

If you want a natural finish on your cabinet, you need to buy stain-grade plywood, which is more expensive. Otherwise, purchase paint-grade material for all of the plywood specified. If you opt for stain-grade plywood, make sure to choose wood with a matching grain for all of the parts specified in pine in this materials list.

W Tongues Cut To Fit Grooves In Frame

The back edging strips (C) are also ripped from a piece of 5 4 stock so they 're as wide as the thickness of the plywood panel, see Cross Section in Fig. 1. Then they're cut to the same length as the front edgings. GROOVES IN STRIPS. All four of these strips are joined to the plywood panel by routing 'A x Va grooves. On the front strips (B), the grooves are cut on the 1 wide face (see Cross Section in Fig. 1), and positioned so the outside edge is flush with the surface of the panel. The back edging strip (C) has a W x W groove centered on the edge of the strip. It also has a ' '-deep rabbet on the inside back edge for the plywood back.

Installing the back panels

Cut two pieces of plywood to fit snugly into the openings and apply a thin bead of adhesive along the rabbets (above, right) and on the contacting surfaces of the plywood. Spread the glue evenly, set the panels in position, then use small finishing nails to secure them at 6- to 8-inch intervals.

Shaping the ends of the top rails

Referring to the anatomy illustration (page 131), draw the decorative curve at the ends of the top rails on a piece of -inch plywood and cut out the profile on your band saw. Using the plywood piece as a template, transfer the curve onto each rail. Clamp the rail to a work surface with the end to be cut extending off the table, and cut the curve with a saber saw (left). Once all the rails have been shaped, sand the cut ends smooth and assemble the pieces with glue and screws as you did the lattice (page 134).

Router Table For Tight Spaces

All I did was replace the table extension on the right side of my old 8 Delta table saw with a plywood extension that sits between the two rip fence guide bars. To make the new extension, i used V2 birch plywood edged with 1W x 1' solid birch. First I cut the plywood so the final width of the extension (after adding the solid-wood edgings) was the same depth (front to back) as the saw table. Then I attached the birch edging to all four sides of the W plywood. To attach the plywood table to the rip fence guide bars, I used W x 1 Rh machine screws threaded through the guide bars and into the threaded inserts in the birch edging. To keep the space between the extension and the rip fence guide rails the same distance as on the saw table (so the rip fence could still be used), I inserted a Vie spacer on each screw between the extension and the guide rails. The router is set into the table in the same manner as in your plan, with one exception. By using the Va thick birch plywood, the...

Building a bending jig

Build a bending jig like the one shown at left to bend the bow and arm of a sackback Windsor chair. Cut two pieces of -inch plywood to the desired curve of the bow and arm, then screw them together to make the form. Mount the form on a -inch plywood base and mark the center of the form near its top edge. Then cut the stop block from hardwood and screw it to the base, and bore the two -inch-diameter dowel holes into the base. The space between the block and dowels and the form should equal the thickness of the workpiece plus the wedges used to secure it in place. Finally, prepare the dowels and wedges, then clamp the base to a work surface.

Assembling the Planter

Cut one 11-inch by 48-inch bottom piece (D) from exterior grade plywood. 2. This is one of those times when you probably need a willing helper (or sixteen of your own hands). You now have a long front section, a long back section, and two short side sections. Each of the sections has two attached support pieces one that is flush with the edges, and one that is offset by 1 inch. The flush supports belong at the top of the assembled planter, and the offset supports brace the plywood bottom. Place the two assembled side sections between the front and back sections, fitting the plywood bottom (D) over the lower supports as shown in Figure 2. Note that the vertical pieces (A) on the front and back sections overlap the edges of the vertical pieces (A) on the side sections. 3. Glue and screw the sections together on the ends, using several 3-1 2-inch-long screws on each corner to make certain that the assembly is secure. Then glue and screw the plywood bottom (D) to the lower supports all...

Beveling one edge o the staves

With the shop-built tapering jig shown at left, you can bevel the edges of the staves and taper them in a single setup. For the jig, make the base from a piece of 12-inch-wide plywood, and the guide bar and stop block from solid stock. Start by angling the blade to 22 , then use bar clamps to secure the stave blank to the base so the edge extends off the base by 1 inch at the leading end and inch at the trailing ends. Butt the guide bar and stop block against the stock, clamp them in place and fix the pieces to the base. Screw toggle clamps to the guide bar and use them to secure the blank to the jig protect the stock with wood pads. Remove the bar clamps. Next, butt the edge of the jig base against the blade and the rip fence against the opposite edge of the base. Start feeding the jig and workpiece with both hands, as shown, but move your right hand safely away about halfway through the cut. Finish the pass with your left hand, keeping the jig flush against the fence throughout....

Laying out the bevels

To form the octagon, bevel the corners of the square taper. The bevel is already outlined on the end of each post, but it must also be marked on the sides of the stock. Taking the dimensions from a piece of full-size post stock, and drawing on scrap plywood, outline squares as you did in step 1 (above, left). Transfer your measurement equal to the bevel width to the

Covering the Front and Back Finishing

Pull the gathers evenly along both long edges until the fabric panel measures 48 inches long. Fold under the raw ends on the short edges (it helps to iron them), and attach the fabric panel to the underside of the bench, flush with the plywood. Use staples or upholstery tacks to secure the fabric in place. Again, don't be stingy with the staples since they must hold the gathers in place. 1. Cut one 12-1 2-inch by 47-1 2-inch bench top (K) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood. 3. Center the foam rubber (or an equivalent amount of polyester quilt batting) over the plywood bench top (I) and glue it in place. 5. Centering the top panel (L) over the foam rubber, staple or tack it to the underside of the plywood bench top (K). (You can minimize the number of wrinkles if you start by stapling the center of one long side and the center of the opposite long side. Then work your way out to the ends, smoothing the fabric as you go. Use enough staples to hold the fabric securely. Next, staple the center...

Some Tips From Our Shop

This was a problem on the edging strips used around the plywood top of the computer desk and printer stand. We positioned the strips so they stuck up about Vxi above the surface of the plywood. Then they could be planed down flush. But if you plane down too far, you can cut right through the thin veneer face of the plywood. Start by running a strip of masking tape right along the joint line to protect the plywood or Formica. Then plane the edging strip down with a block plane just until the masking ta K* stalls to tear. from going into the plywood (or Formica), see drawing below. bask board. To build the jig, start by cutting a base board from a piece of plywood. I cut the board a little longer than the depth of my saw and 12 wide.

Getting the Parts Ready

1.A pattern for the top (A) is given in Figure 1. The top (A) is a hexagon with all sides measuring exactly 7-1 2 inches, and all angles measuring 60 degrees. Enlarge the pattern and cut one top (A) from 3 4-inch -thick plywood. sure 5-1 2 inches. Enlarge the pattern and cut one inner support (B) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood.

Constructing the Armoire Frame

Cut two sides (A) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood, each measuring 2 by 6 feet. 5. Cut one 4-foot by 6-foot back piece (C) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood. Place it on a flat surface and attach the two sides (A) at right angles to the back. Glue and screw the two vertical supports (B) to the back (C) as shown in Figure 2. Again, use 2-1 4-inch-long screws about every 6 inches.

Making the end board templates

Shape the curved profiles of the head-and footboards with a router guided by templates. Make the templates from -inch plywood, tracing the contours of the boards' top edges, as illustrated on page 51, on the plywood. But instead of producing templates that span the full end boards, mark only one-half the patterns on the templates, from one end to the middle not only will the templates be easier to maneuver, but by using a single pattern to outline both halves of each board, you will ensure that they are symmetrical. Cut each pattern one-half as long as the end board, plus about 12 inches. On both sides of the template, mark one end of the end board, then the middle, and trace the curved pattern in between. Cut the pattern on your band saw, then smooth the cut edge, using a spindle sander (right) or a sanding block.

Finishing and final assembly

2 Reassemble the beds in the bedroom, screwing the plywood bottoms (K) to the top of the cleats (J). If used as bunk beds, use the holes in the safety rail supports (Q) as guides to drill mating holes in the top bunk bed rail (I). Screw the side and head safety rails in place.

Making the Drawer Fronts

The drawer front is nothing more than a center panel of 1 4-inch plywood that is inserted into a 1 x 2 frame, and trimmed with decorative molding Figure F). It's not difficult to do, but it requires a certain amount of precision when cutting to obtain a professional-looking finished product. Don't hurry the process, and be meticulous in your work. 1. Cut one 10-1 2-inch by 2-inch drawer panel (R) from 1 4-inch-thick plywood. 6. Allowing a little extra length for the miters, cut four pieces of 1 4-inch-thick decorative molding to fit around the inside edges of the frame. Set the molding so that the decorative edge faces up, and miter both ends of each piece at a 45-degree angle. Attach the mitered pieces to the plywood panel with glue and wire brads. Countersink the brads.

Building the Drawer Fronts

Although they have different dimensions, the upper drawer fronts and lower drawer fronts are constructed in exactly the same manner. Each drawer front is nothing more than a center panel of 1 4-inch-thick plywood inserted into a 1 x 2 frame and trimmed with decorative molding CFigure 14). It's not difficult to do, but it does require a certain amount of precision when cutting to obtain a professional-looking finished product. For the best results, don't hurry the process, and be meticulous in your work. 1. To make one upper drawer front, cut one 10-1 2-inch by 4-1 2-inch drawer panel (BB) from 1 4-inch-thick plywood. 8. The two lower drawer fronts are identical with the upper ones, except that they are 1 inch taller. To construct the two lower drawer fronts, repeat steps 1 through 6 twice more, but with the following modifications cut the lower drawer panel (BB2) 10-1 2 by 6-1 2 inches (from 1 4-inch-thick plywood) cut each of the two lower drawer-front side frame pieces (DD2) 6-1 2...

Remove the hardware and apply the finish

Using 8x3 4 flat-head wood screws, fasten the shelves to the plywood back. Apply the finish. 4 Attach the hardware and door. Place the case back into the rabbeted opening, drill the holes, and then using 4x5 8 flathead wood screws fasten the back in place. Level and fasten the case to the wall. 'Parts initially cut oversize. See the instructions. Materials key C-cherry, CP-cherry plywood. Supplies MxVs flathead wood screws, 8x3 4 flat-head wood screws, clear silicone sealant, 3 8 dowel pins 1 long, e glass, stain, finish. 1 4 x 24 x 24 Cherry plywood

Time to add cleats clock face support and back

3 Place the clock face on the clock-face panel (F). Trace the shaft hole and four screw mounting holes from the clock-face openings onto the plywood 4Measure the opening, and cut the back panel (G) to size from ' t cherry plywood. Glue the clock support into the notch in the exterior top piece (C). Then, using the previously drilled shank holes in the notch as guides, drill a pair of Vw pilot holes Va deep into the top piece (C). Drill the same sized mounting hole through the top interior piece (B) and into the support, where shown on Drawing 1 and accompanying Drawing 1b. Drive a trio of 8x1 lA wood screws to further secure the clock support to the clock assembly.

Preparing the case for the dial and clock mechanism

The dial and clock mechanism are attached to a thin plywood backing board, which in turn is screwed to cleats glued to the inside of the case. Cut two cleats to fit along the inside face of the case side panels between the top panel and the divider. Cut a third one to run along the inside face of the top panel

Assembling The Chair

Use the holes you used to secure the template (page 39) as guides to bore clearance holes for the threaded rod. Start by clamping a plywood backup panel to your drill press table and install a ' -inch bit in the machine. Position the unit on the table so that one of the holes is aligned under the bit and hold the unit steady as you drill the hole (above).

Replacing a Side or Back

Usually aside or back needs to be replaced only when it is broken or the dovetail joints have become very worn. Use the old side or back as a template to cut a new one from a hardwood board of the proper thickness, probably ' 4-inch. You will have to cut new dovetails in each end of the new part. Since these fit into existing dovetails, use the existing dovetails as templates that is, use the dovetails 011 the front of the drawer as the pattern for culling matching dovetails in the new side. Step 1 Cutting the Side If the part to be replaced is a drawer side, begin by making a blank. This is a hardwood piece of the same thickness as the side it is replacing, and of the same overall dimensions. Drawers are assembled with new side and back panels and new bottoms made of 'A inch hardwood plywood, ordinary plywood or Masonite Drawers are assembled with new side and back panels and new bottoms made of 'A inch hardwood plywood, ordinary plywood or Masonite

Step Gluing the Runner Coat

HOW TO REPAIR Large flat areas of WARPED solid wood, jnejud- leafs and cabinet doors, are subject to warping. Parts made of plywood arc less likely lo warp, bin under the right conditions even they can have problems. Pieces thai have no frame to support them are likely candidates. Pieces that have been finished completely on both sides have less of this trouble because the finishing material prevents absorption of moisture. Tables with unfinished undersides are an invitation to trouble. The ultimate cause of the problem is moist air, of course, and if you live in a climate thai is dry all year, you don't need to worry.

Hidden pillar mirrors

Small mirrors fixed to dressing-tables will only require one pillar (452 6) screwed to the carcass back, with the mirror supported by a friction stay. The mirror can be released by pressing the forked arms (452 6A) together, and lifting the top plates off their pivots. Larger cheval-type mirrors will require two pillars (452 7), with a stronger stay (452 8) in which the wing arm is secured with a wing nut. The edges of the plywood backs used for mounting these mirrors can be masked with thick poster paint, coloured to match the wood finish and then polished in the usual manner.

Routing finger recesses in the fly rails

To facilitate pivoting the fly rails, cut finger recesses into the underside of their curved ends. Install a piloted cove bit in a router, mount the tool in a table, and set the cutting depth at inch. To provide a bearing surface for the rails, fashion a fence for the stock to ride against on the infeed side of the table and a guard for the bit from a plywood block and clear acrylic. Attach the guard and fence together and clamp them to the table. Press the stock against the pilot bearing as you feed each rail across the table (above)-, make the recess about 4 inches long and center it on the rail's curved end.

Outlining the profile of the top

Enlarge the grid shown In the inset to produce a cutting pattern for shaping the profile of the top one square equals 2 inches. Trace the pattern onto a piece of Vi-inch plywood or hardboard and cut out the template on your band saw. Then set the top face-down on a work surface and extend the leaves. Mark a line down the middle of the top and position the template on it align the straight edge of the pattern with the centerline and the adjoining curved edge with the end of the top. Use a pencil to trace the curved profile on the top. Repeat at the remaining corners (above).

Texts relating to materials

From 1850 to 1930, Rizzoli Boulton, B. (1921) The Manufacture and Use of Plywood Plywood, The Ronald Press Co. Latham, B. (1957) Timber Its Development and Waterer, J.W. (1968) Leather Craftsmanship, Praeger Wills, G. (1965) English Looking Glasses, Country Life Wood, A.D. and Linn, T.G. (1963) Plywoods of the World, Their Development and Manufacture, Edinburgh

Add the finish hardware and movement

2 Install the glass and the glass stops. (See Drawing 3a for reference.) Screw the clock face to the plywood panel (F). 6 Stick the clock shaft through the hole in the plywood panel, and fasten the movement (minus the pendulum) to the panel and clock face with the external- Vi x 24 x 48 Cherry plywood Vi x 24 x 48 Cherry plywood

Building the Drawer Housing

The six interior drawers are housed in a plywood box that fits inside the lower portion of the armoire. The completed drawer housing measures 36-112 by 39 inches. 1. Cut two top bottom housing pieces (L) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood, each measuring 21 by 36-1 2 inches. 2. Cut two side housing pieces (M) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood, each measuring 21 by 37-1 2 inches. 7. Cut one 36-1 2-inch by 39-inch housing back (O) from 3 4-inch plywood. 9. Cut one 18-1 4-inch by 37-1 2-inch center divider (P) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood.

Blackboards laminboards etc

In these the principle of construction is a series of wood core strips glued together side by side to form a slab, which is sandwiched between outer layers of veneer or thin plywood whose grains are crossed at right angles to the length of the core strips. In blockboard the core strips should not exceed 1 in (25 mm) in width, although they can be of any thickness dependent on the thickness of the completed board, and in theory at least the grain direction of the strips should run counter to each other, although in practice a random selection is adopted. The outer or face veneers can be a single thickness of from 3 32 in (2 mm) to 9 64 in (3.5 mm) or two veneers glued together with grains parallel to make up a 3 32 in (2 mm) thickness or, where the length of the sheet exceeds the width, a five-ply construction of core strips, 3 32 in (2 mm) veneer either side at right angles to the core, and outer veneers of about 1 16 in (1.5 mm) parallel to the core. Laminboard adopts the same...

Attach the face frame and rout the molding groove

IGlue and clamp the face frame to the cabinet. (Before clamping the face frame to the cabinet, we placed masking tape on the walnut plywood next to the joints being glued, so any glue squeeze-out dried on the tape. After the glue dried, we peeled off the tape and excess glue. This was easier than removing the squeeze-out with a damp cloth or scraping it off after it dried.) 8x1 V2 F.H.-wood screw 8x1 V2 F.H.-wood screw 3 Mount a lA straight bit in your router. Clamp a straightedge (we used a piece of plywood) to the cabinet side. Rout a 'A dado W deep 10 from the top edge of the cabinet top where shown on Drawing 4. Move the straightedge and rout the other side. Now, rout the front face. Using Drawing 3 for reference, rout the dado across the bottom of the cabinet.

Cutting the tenon cheeks in the rails

Cut open mortise-and-tenons on your table saw using the shop-made jig shown in the inset. Refer to the dimensions suggested, making sure the thickness of the spacer and width of the brace enable the jig to slide along the rip fence without wobbling. Cut the body and brace from -inch plywood and the guide and spacer from solid wood. Saw an oval hole for a handle in the jig body and attach the guide to the body in front of the handle. Screw a wood block to the body below the handle and attach a toggle clamp to the block. Finally, fasten the spacer and brace in place. To cut the tenon cheeks In the door rails, butt the workpiece against the guide and clamp it in place. Set the cutting height to the tenon length, position the fence to align one of the cutting marks on the rail with the blade and slide the jig along the fence to make the cut (above). Turn the rail around to cut the other cheek, then repeat the cuts at the other end of the rail and at both ends of the remaining rails.

Gluing the posts to the end boards

Set the end boards with their respective end rails and posts on a work surface, and test-fit the mortise-and-tenon joints between them. Use a chisel to pare away wood from any ill-fitting joints. Apply glue to the contacting surfaces of the posts and end boards and rails, and use a non-marring dead-blow hammer to tap the joints together, if necessary. Secure the pieces with four long pipe clamps or eight shorter bar clamps used in pairs, as shown at left. Position two clamps across the end board so the handle-end jaws rest against opposite posts and the tail stops of the clamps overlap. Protect the posts with wood pads cut as long and wide as the pommel sections use plywood pads to protect the faces of the end boards and rails. Tighten one of the clamps until the tail stops make contact. Repeat with two more clamps across the end rail and partially tighten all four clamps, then turn the assembly over and install the remaining four clamps. Tighten all the clamps (left) until a thin...

Roughcutting the arches

Referring to the anatomy illustration of the pigeonhole unit (page 108), outline the shape of the arches on a piece of -inch plywood, cut it out, and smooth the edges to fashion a template that you will use to make a routing jig (step 2). Before assembling the jig, use the template to outline six copies of the shape on your arch stock. Cut out the arches to within H inch of your cutting lines using the band saw. To keep the blade from binding in the kerfs, make a series of release cuts through the waste, stopping inch from the lines. Then saw along the waste side of the lines, feeding the work-piece with both hands (right). Make sure that neither hand is in line with the blade.

Setting up a vacuum press

Featuring a sealed vacuum bag and a 5-cfm (cubic feet per minute) vacuum pump, the press shown in step 3 can exert pressure greater than 1,000 pounds per square foot. The press works by withdrawing most of the air from the bag the resulting outside air pressure secures the veneer. To set up the press, cut the platen and caul to the same size as your substrate panel (right). The platen should be made from medium-density fiberboard or particleboard at least inch thick. Cut the caul from any type of manufactured board (other than plywood) at least lh inch thick. To prepare the platen, round over its corners to avoid tearing the bag, then cut a grid of grooves Va inch deep and wide across its surface, spaced 4 to 6 inches apart. Finally, bore a 5 s-inch hole 2 inches from one end of the platen and centered between its edges. Slip the sleeve supplied with the press into the hole. The sleeve will ensure a tight connection with the vacuum hose.

Adding the Top and Trim

Cut one 22-1 2-inch by 34-1 2-inch top (E) from 3 4-inch-thick plywood. Center one long trim piece (F) lengthwise over one of the long frames (A) so that the mitered ends of the trim (F) extend evenly beyond the ends of the frame (A). Remember to put the long trim piece (F) so that it is just a hair more than 1 4 inch above the plywood top. Use glue and three or four 1-1 4-inch-long screws to anchor the long trim (F) in place.

Assembling the fallfront

Made from plywood, hardwood, and six 9-inch-long press screws, the inexpensive shop-built veneer press shown below will work as well as a commercial model. The dimensions provided in the illustration will yield a press capable of veneering panels up to 16 by 29Vz inches. Start by cutting the rails and stiles from hardwood. Bore three equidistant holes through the middle of each top rail, sized slightly larger than the diameter of the press screw collars you will be using. Next, join the rails and stiles into two rectangular frames. Now cut the pieces for the base and caul to size. Both are made from two pieces of -inch plywood face-glued and screwed together. To assemble the press, set the two frames on their sides on a work surface and screw the base to the bottom rails, driving the fasteners from the bottom of the rails. Attach the press screws to the top rails by removing the swivel heads and

Tongued and grooved joints

Grooved and a loose tongue inserted (134 2). These loose tongues were formerly cut from cross grain solid wood but plywood is now univerally used, matching the ply to the thickness of the cutter. The boards are not planed hollow, while the tongue itself, whether loose or worked in the solid, should be a hand-tight fit and no more, and slightly bare of the full depth of the groove to allow for surplus glue, allowing 3 16 in (5 mm) thick tongues entering about1 4 in (6 mm) for 3 4 in (19 mm) boards, and 1 4 in (6 mm) thick for 1 in (25 mm) boards. Thicker boards require double tongues (134 3). A good tongued and grooved joint will help to pull up a warped board, but should not be relied upon to correct a pronounced problem. Faults in tongued joints are shown in 134 4 where in (A) the tongue is too long, preventing the edges meeting (B) too thick, forcing the grooves open and (C) too short, weakening the joint. Typical applications are also shown on this page. Figure 134 7 is a tongued...

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THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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