Treated Lumber Ebook

Cheap Woodworking Secrets

Jim Whidden is the author of the cheap woodworking secrets. Jim Whidden is a famous and well-ranked author. That makes his creations reliable and accurate. All the reviews made by people who have used the product are all positive so you should not doubt it. Before writing this piece, he noticed that a lot of people used to throw away lots of cash in woodworking construction. He ventured into this field, which took a lot of time and also effort but finally managed to acquire secrets that are well described in this product. He then decided to share and truly they have been of help to many. Cheap woodworking secrets will teach you every sneaky trick known for picking up shocking deals on every kind of wood and power tool under the sun. It is an e-book that is divided into two different parts. The first one focuses on the lumber secrets of woodworking, on how the guide's author concentrates on buying the best quality wood products and great dimensional lumber at the lowest prices. The second chapter describes the secrets of choosing the best tools. This guide is welcome to both newbie and experienced woodworkers. It just needs you to purchase it and learn a great deal about woodworking. More here...

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Ordering lumber by the board foot

Because the board foot is a unit of measurement that offers a standard way of totaling the volume of stock regardless of dimensions, it is commonly used when dealing with lumber. As shown at left, the standard board foot is equivalent to a piece that is 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide and 12 inches long. To calculate the number of board feet in a particular piece of wood, multiply its three dimensions together. Then divide the result by 144 if the dimensions are all in inches, or by 12 if one dimension is expressed in feet. For the standard board, the formula is 1 x 12 x 12 -f 144 1 (or 1 x 12 x 1' -f 12 1). So if you had an 8-foot-long l-by-3, you would calculate the board feet as follows lx3x8-nl2 2(or 2 board feet). Other examples are shown in the illustration. Remember that board feet are calculated on the basis of nominal rather than actual sizes.

Mechanical Methods In Lumbering

The operations described above are those common in the lumber regions of the northeast and the Lake States. But special conditions produce special methods. A very effective device where streams are small is the flume, Fig. 23. This is a long wooden trough thru which water is led, and the logs floated end on. It is sometimes many miles long in one case in California twenty-five miles. In Northern Michigan a snow locomotive, Fig. 31, is coming into use, which has tremendous tractive power, hauling one hundred to one hundred fifty tons of lumber over snow or ice. It moves on runners, but there is between them a large cylinder armed with teeth. This cylinder can be raised or lowered by the operator as it moves over the surface of the ground. The teeth catch in the snow or ice, and since the cylinder is heated by the exhaust steam, it melts and packs the snow for the trucks following it. The drum is six feet in diameter, with walls an inch and a half thick, and it weighs seven tons. It is...

The Ghosts Of Stickers Past

Recently, I came across a problem I've never seen before. The problem was that there were very light lines about 1 wide, that ran across the width of my lumber. These lines occurred every th ree feet or so along the length of the lumber. ning across the face of lumber are either sticker stains or sticker marks. Both conditions occur during the drying process, and are caused by the narrow pieces of lumber (stickers) that are used to separate the layers of boards as they dly. Although stickers allow free air movement throughout the stack of lumber during air and kiln drying, they can also create some unique problems. As lumber dries, it's normal for the exposed surface of the boards to darken slightly as it reacts with the oxygen in the air (oxidation). Sticker marks occur when the contact between the sticker and the board is tight enough to prevent oxidation from occurring on the area where the sticker and the lumber meet. This causes the area covered by the sticker to appeal1 lighter...

The nature of wood appearance cellular structure and identification

Virtually all wood found in furniture is the product of the stem portions of mature trees. The stem, also referred to as the trunk or bole, is harvested as a 'log' and further processed into lumber, turning squares and the like. Therefore each component of furniture, whether it is the flat-lumber leaf of a table top or the turned leg of a chair, can be interpreted in terms of its original position in a tree. Many characteristics are common to all trees and can be discussed without regard to a specific type of wood. In considering the eventual details of cell structure, however, it will be fitting to discuss softwoods and hardwoods separately.

Hanger Bolt Location Detail

Precautions for Pressure-Treated Lumber ost pressure-treated lumber is saturated with the preservative Chromatcd Copper Arsenate, or CCA As we mentioned in the introduction, this chemical poisons the lumber, preventing the growdi of bacteria that would otherwise rot the wood. Unfortunately, what is poisonous to bacteria may also harm other forms of life namely you and your family. If you use pressure-treated lumlx.T in your outdwr furniture projects, you should take a few precautions. CCA is an arsenic compound that chemically bonds with the wood under pressure. It gives off no fumes, and cannot be dissolved once it is bonded. Consequently, it won't leech out of the wood, and there is little chemical residue on the surface of a finished project to come in contact with people, pets, and plants. However, many of the craftsmen and builders who work with pressure-treated lumber regularly report rashes, watery eyes, itching, violent sneezing and other irritations. This probably comes from...

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Constructing the Seat

From 2x4 treated lumber, cut one 18-1 2-inch-long seat front (D), two seat sides (E), each 19-1 2 inches long, and one 15-1 2-inch-long seat back (F). 4. Cut four slats (G) from 1x6 treated lumber, each 18-1 2 inches long. Place them side by side on top of the seat assembly, with their ends facing the chair sides (see Figure 4). The slats should overhang both the front and back of the chair by about 1 2 inch. Secure the four slats by gluing and screwing them to the seat assembly with 1-1 4-inch-long screws. (TIP It looks much nicer if you draw a line on the slats from the front of the chair to the back about 1 inch from the slat ends and place all of your screws on that line.) Put two screws on each end of a slat, and space them uniformly on all of the slats.

Adding the Chair Back

Cut two back supports (H) from 2x4 treated lumber, each 14-1 2 inches long. Then set your saw blade to cut 15 degrees off vertical, and bevel one end of each support to allow the assembled back to lean slightly backwards. (If you're unsure about how to make a bevel cut, refer to the Tips and Techniques chapter.) 2. Cut three back slats (I) from 1x6 treated lumber, each 18-1 2 inches long.

Tools and techniques of conversion and construction

The twentieth century furniture factory, making cabinet furniture on a large scale, is organized so that there is a logical sequence of event that takes full advantage of flow line productions systems, semi-skilled labour and intensive machinery. The rough end receives lumber and deals with the processes of sawing, planing and moulding as well as veneer preparation. The shaping department follows with mortising, lathe work, boring, bandsawing and jointing. This is followed by sanding. Once these preliminaries are complete the assembly can begin. Work such as sub-assemblying, clamping, drawer work and door hanging occur at this point. Finally the finishing stain, filling, sealing and glazing occur before items are ready for packing and shipping.

First Things Considered

The sizes of material found in stock need not interfere with the expressing of ideas that may occur. Lumber can be obtained of almost any size desired, and if it is not at hand the next largest dimension can readily be cut down, at the small expense for waste and labor, which in special work is hardly to be considered. It certainly is not advisable to spoil a good design in order to use material without cutting a little to waste.

Mahogany Arm Chair

To imitate the more expensive wood, and were generally decorated with paintings of flowers, draperies, and the like. Two examples of these elaborate settees are shown in Figs. 196 and 197. Figs. 198 and 199 are two mahogany chairs, the backs of which match those of the settee from the Guide. Both have the appearance of being of provincial origin. It is surprising what snares these apparently simple shield-back chairs are for the inexperienced maker. To attain the requisite degree of comfort and stability, combined with proportions and form pleasing to the eye, is a task of consider-

Style In Furniture

The wood employed in their manufacture was often mahogany, but generally they were of some softer and less expensive wood, japanned. The horse screen, of the type shown in Fig. 11, was also a common accompaniment of the cosy fireside the framework was invariably of mahogany, the panels being filled with rich silk, needlework, and the like. As to the working of the horse screen, the centre part slid in grooves made, in the inner sides of the supporting uprights, being suspended by weights attached to it by a line which passed over a pulley in the top of the frame. Figs. 7 and 9 are candle-stands, which, according to this authority, are very useful in large suites of apartments, as the light may be placed in any part at pleasure in drawing-rooms, in halls and on larger staircases. . . Their place, I need hardly point out, has now been taken by the metal, telescopic, standard floor lamp, with its tortuosities, spirals, leafage and rosettes in wrought iron, brass, and copper. The modern...

Delicate inlay fans life into a traditional piece

Wood Stringing Inlay Design

Transport of heavy lumber was so difficult two hundred years ago that most mahogany furniture was built in coastal areas. The chest's secondary wood is white pine, but that's no clue to its origin, since cabinetmakers in both New England and Virginia used white pine extensively as a secondary wood, and northerners shipped a great deal of mahogany furniture to wealthy southern farmers. If the secondary wood were yellow pine, you could reliably classify the piece as a southern antique.

Provincial Crner Cupboard

My measured drawing and bill of materials (pp. 78 and 79) show the lumber thicknesses of the original, but more conventional stock sizes will work all right. The carcase sides and doors can be 7k in. or ' Vi6 in. thick. You could make the back panels from ' 2-in. boards and work the cornice from Win. stock.

Movement And Shrinkage

Tortrix Viridana Effects Wood

Where the wood fibres follow or are parallel to the long axis of the tree or plank then the term Weight grain is used. Any slight deviation from the parallel is known as oblique or diagonal grain, and pronounced deviation cross grain. If the arrangement of the fibres twists about the long axis then the twist is known as spiral while regular waves or ripples create wavy grain, and irregular curves curly grain. The term interlocked grain refers to a condition in which, for some unknown reason, the direction of the fibres regularly changes or reverses in successive growth layers, and is often known as ribbon or stripy grain (sapele, etc.). All these grain arrangements occur naturally in the tree, although diagonal grain can be caused by poor saw-milling, and spiral grain cut through and through in the normal way will show as simple diagonal grain on the face. Additionally, the term 'grain' is used in connection with methods of milling, etc. thus a straight cut across the face of the...

Retaining the essence of the country style

Barn Style Country Garages Plans

In the early 1800s, lumber was so abundant that Kentucky became known as the hardwood capital of the world, and there were more than 30 cabinetmakers in the central Kentucky (Lexington) area alone. Even though these cabinetmakers were far from major cities and fashion centers of the day, prosperous rural landowners and prominent townspeople in the area wanted furniture of the trendy Chippendale, Sheraton, Hepplewhite and Federal styles popular in the East. Striving to meet the needs of their patrons, these local cabinetmakers made the fashionable pieces as best they could, but at the same time, developed their own Kentucky style. Doors and back panels-Again, I select my wood very carefully for grain pattern and straightness. 1 also rough-cut the lumber a few days before 1 need it, to identify- pieces prone to warping. Sec-ond-choice pieces become the frames for the paneled back really-warped pieces are discarded. On the back, rather than cut mortises in rails for the stile tenons, I...

Rules for Planing to Dimensions

The rules just given are the ones used when stock is entirely in the rough or where it is desired to have the surfaces as nearly perfect as possible. While every student should know how, and be able to square up rough stock quickly and accurately, he should understand that modern mill practice makes it unnecessary to use stock entirely in the rough. Most of the lumber used by cabinet makers and carpenters is machine planed, Fig. 119, on two surfaces to stock thicknesses.

Pencil Posts

The tapered octagonal bedpost, known as a pencil post, is a popular alternative to the turned version featured in the previous section. Instead of being shaped in individual sections that are then assembled, pencil posts are made from a single length of solid or face-glued lumber first tapered on a jointer (page 67) and then by hand (page 68). To avoid tearout as you shape the posts, make your blanks from 3 inch-thick stock with straight grain if you choose to glue up thinner boards to make up the blanks, make sure the wood grain of the pieces runs in the same direction.

Wood Measurements

Lumber is a general term for all kinds of sawn wood. Logs may be sawn into timber, that is, beams and joists, into planks, which are 2 to 4 thick, or into boards which are from Yto 1 Y thick. These may be resawn into special sizes. Lumber is measured by the superficial foot, which is a board 1 thick, 12 wide, and 12 long, so that a board 1 thick, (or dressed) 6 wide and 12' 0 long, measures 6' B. M. (board measure). Boards 1 or more thick are sold by the board foot which is equivalent to 12 square and 1 thick. Boards less than 1 thick are sold by the square foot, face measure. Dressed lumber comes in sizes V* less than sawn lumber. Regular sizes are In large lots lumber is ordered thus 800' (B. M.) whitewood, dressed 2 sides to 10 and up. This means that the width of any piece must not be less than 10 . Prices are usually given per M, i. e., per 1000 ft. e. g. basswood may be quoted at 40.00 per M. Some lumber is also ordered by the running or lineal foot, especially moldings, etc.,...

Cutting Diagrams

What we do is lay-out the pieces for a project in the most efficient arrangement, while at the same time keeping the overall dimensions of the lumber needed within reason (12 wide boards make great cutting diagrams, but they're nearly impossible to obtain in most areas). What this means is that the cutting layout is only a guide. In fact, if you can't purchase lumber in the sizes listed in the cutting diagram, you may need to draw out your own version to match the size of lumber available.

Steaming the slats

As a rough guide, steam air-dried lumber for one hour per inch of thickness half that time for green wood. Avoid scalding your hands by wearing work gloves and using tongs to handle the stock (above). Place the next slat in the jig and bend the steamed slat without delay.

Nesting Tables

Each of the tables can be-easily built from standard I x2,1 x4,and2x2dimension lumber. It's also quick to build you can put together all three tables in an afternoon. To make this project as shown you'll need two I x 2s, six 1 x 4s, and three 2 x 2s, all 8' long. You only have to rip and cut the parts miter a few boards cut tenons in the ends of a few more and put it all together. What could be easier


Fire-wood is best dried rapidly so that it will check, making air spaces which facilitate ignition, but lumber needs to be slowly dried in cool air so that the fibers may accommodate themselves to the change of form and the wood check as little as possible. Good air-drying consumes from two to six years, the longer the better. Oak is the most difficult wood to dry properly. When it and other hardwoods are rapidly dried without sufficient surrounding moisture, the wood case-hardens, that is, the outer part dries and shrinks before the interior has had a chance to do the same, and this forms a shell or case of shrunken, and often checked wood around the interior which also checks later. This interior checking is called honeycombing.* Hardwood lumber is commonly air-dried from two to six months, before being kiln-dried. For the sake of economy in time, the tendency is to eliminate yard-drying, and substitute kiln-drying. Kiln-drying of one inch oak, takes one or two weeks, quarter-sawn...

A thcentury Chest

17th Century Dovetailed Travelers Chest

I based my design on illustrations in Jean Pallardy's book, The Early Furniture of French Canada. Building the chest with handtools is pleasant, but you might prefer power tools for some operations. I hollowed out the three 2 -in.-thick planks for the sides and lid with a scrub plane, for example, but you could remove most of the waste with a tablesaw, then clean up the surface with a handplane. Begin by cutting all the stock slightly larger than the dimensions shown in the drawing, and lay out all the parts. Select straight-grained, easily worked lumber. I used American chestnut, but pine or butternut also work well. Small knots are okay, but can be hard to plane.

Diseases And Pests

Timber Dote Disease

While the sapwood of any wood is particularly liable to infestation (and it is for this reason that in some countries sapwood should never be used in furniture), the heartwoods of certain sweet woods, notably birch, beech, alder and some soft walnuts, are also attacked, while any wood affected by dampness or incipient decay is also prone. Alder, in particular, speedily becomes riddled with furniture beetle, hence the wiseacre's claim that it is better to have a plank or two of alder lying about the timber- or lumber-yard to attract any migrant beetles a highly invidious contention, for the alder then becomes a first-class breeding-ground. Polished and painted surfaces do, of course, accord protection against the egg-laying female beetle, but invariably there is Certain other types of longhorn beetle infest the sapwood of both hardwoods and softwoods. They do not as a rule attack seasoned timber lumber, and are, therefore, confined to forest and timber-yard.


However, in spite of my stash of lumber on steroids, there are still times that 1 need to glue several boards together to make a wide panel. You can purchase matching lumber from one of the small, specialty hardwood dealers that advertise in the pages of Popular Woodwtrrking. (You also can. check the Searchable Links section of our web sire at Sometimes the best way to find out if a board matches its neighbor is to look at the grain patterns. Take a block plane with you to the lumberyard to skim off a tittle of the rough-sawn stuff to get a look at the grain. The prices are higher from these merchants, but 1 think it's worth the extra cost for the premium matching lumber. If you're searching for matching boards at a large, commercial lumberyard, be aware that rhe boards usually are mixed together with those from other trees. It requires a lot of organization and effort to keep the boards sorted by individual rrees. Nevertheless, you still can find matching boards- As...

General Bibliography

Disston, Henry, and Sons, Handbook for Lumbermen. Philadelphia, Pa. Dunlap, Frederick, Kiln-drying Hardwood Lumber. Wood Craft, 6 133, Feb. '07. Hovey-King, Alvin, The Lumber Industry of the Pacific Coast. Review of Reviews. 27 317, Mr., '03. Hulbert, W. H., The Lumber Jack and His Job. Outlook, 76 801, Ap. 2, '04. International Correspondence School, The Building Trades Pocketbook. Jones, J. E., Lumbering in the Northwest. Cosmopolitan, 15 63, May 1893. Larsson. Gustaf, Elementary Sloyd and Whittling. N. Y. Silver, Burdett & Co. 1906. Munn, M. J., Great Industries of the U. S. Lumber. Cosmopolitan, 37 441, Aug. '04. Selden, F. H., Elementary Woodwork. N. Y. Rand, McNally & Co. 1906. Sickels, Ivin, Exercises in Woodworking. N. Y. D. Appleton & Co. 1889. Smith, K., Lumbering by Machinery. World's Work, 7 4435, Feb. '04. Smith, R. H., Cutting Tools. London Cassell & Co. 1884. South Kensington Council on Education, Notes on Building Construction. No. 34. Wm. F. Fox, A History of the...

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Attaching the Legs

Cut four legs (F) from 4x4 treated lumber, each 17-1 4 inches long. 3. From 2x4 treated lumber, cut one long leg support (G) measuring 28-1 2 inches long. 5. Cut one 12-1 2-inch-long short leg support (H) from 2x4 treated lumber. 7. Cut four support blocks (I) from 2x4 treated lumber, each 3-1 2 inches long.

Selecting Wood

Whichever species you select, take the time to choose your boards carefully. Avoid lumber that is cupped, bowed, or warped in any way. For maximum stability, choose air-dried lumber with a maximum of 20 percent moisture content. The wood should contain as little sapwood as possible since the sap will attract wood-eating bugs.

Collecting Old Tools

Splitting or cracking of turned projects usually is caused by lumber that hasn't been properly dried. During the turning process, the wet interior of a semi-dried piece of wood is exposed to the air, and it naturally starts to dry out. Unfortunately, drying lumber this way causes extreme stress in the wood as the exterior of the wood dries and shrinks, and the interior stays relatively wet and stable. And when the stress created by this imbalance becomes stronger than the strength of the wood itself, it shows up as splits or cracks in the surface. There are two ways to eliminate the problem. The first is to use only well dried lumber (dried to 7-9 moisture content) to eliminate the variation in the moisture content between the surface and the interior of the wood. Although using either kiln dried wood, or thoroughly air dried lumber is the best answer, there are times when a special piece of wood shows up that can't be quickly, or effectively air dried. In this case, using a product...

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