served as completely and consistently as possible ; that the demands of comfort, or utility, or of both, are fully satisfied, and in a manner pleasing to the eye ; that the quality of absolute fitness be observable in every particular. Lastly— and here comes a consideration which must be kept in view throughout if our artist depend upon the receipt and execution of commissions for a living—he must make sure that the ideas in question are capable of being put into shape and manufactured with such economy of material, time, thought, labour, and money, that they may be certain of a ready welcome from the much-abused " middleman," and of being retailed at a reasonable, if not a "cutting/' price, which will lead to such a demand for them that the initial expense of their manufacture and introduction to the public—often a very costly process—may be recovered, and recovered, too, with the addition of a reasonable profit.
With all this present in our mind, it will readily be understood that the cultivation of " Applied/' as distinct from " Fine," art is very far from being a simple matter ; and that the life of its disciples is " not a happy one " ; or if it should chance to be so, what happiness there is in it is not attained without protracted and conscientious labour and study; nor is it unmixed with anxiety and disappointment, even in the end. Even with artists of the greatest skill, ideas which appear to be practicable enough as finished designs on paper positively refuse to be " worked-out" in their entirety, with the result that modifications have to be made here and there, often necessitating the sacrifice of the most cherished features, and the consequent loss of much of their special character. Various details cannot be allowed, because their retention would, says the manufacturer, "cost too much " ; they may not be " the sort of thing the public wants" ; certain colours, upon which the entire beauty of the general effect would depend, cannot be produced in the particular material to be employed ; or, if everything else
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