these in conjunction with those designed by Heppehvhite and Chippendale, but more particularly by the former (see "Heppehvhite," Figs. 9, 10, 11, and 13, Plate VII.) in order that the marked differences pointed out in preceding pages may be thoroughly understood and fully appreciated.

In the last chapter I have laid special stress upon the fact that, in the treatment of the bed-pillar, the designs of Heppelwhite were, in almost every instance, much less ornate than those of Sheraton, greater reliance being placed by the earlier designer upon graceful proportion and the careful disposition of the various "members" of the turning, than upon elaboration of rich detail, either carved or inlaid; and a comparison of the two sets of designs specified will prove the correctness of this statement. The pillar shown in Fig. 6 is for a "rich state bed ♦ . . carved in white and gold"; while the instructions concerning Figs. 7 and 8 were that they were " to be painted." The probability is, however, that if the designs were ever carried out, and possibly they were, plain mahogany was employed, simply carved, and without any other enrichment, such as painting, gilding, or marquetry. They, indeed, were not required. I am fully aware of the fact that the days of the old "four poster" have long since passed away ; but some, though not many, of these old examples remain to us, though they are seldom to be met with in their entirety. In most cases they have been "cut down," as previously explained, in order that the pillars might be converted into decorative supports for the display of busts, statuettes, etc., or for the reception of lamps or candles, purposes which they serve exceedingly well, whether regarded from the utilitarian or decorative point of view.

In these three pillars it will be remarked that Sheraton was not disposed to let simple turning tell its own tale when circumstances permitted its embellishment by means of carving, gilding, or painting. Plain surfaces, instead of possessing a beauty of their own in his eyes, were regarded

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