much as commercialism; but they are comparatively rare exceptions. Furthermore, the sub-division of labour, and the ever-growing introduction of improved tools, and specially of machinery of the time-and-labour-saving type, advantageous as they have been, and are, in very many ways, have been antagonistic to the development of the craftsman ; tending rather to make a mere machine of the man himself—a simple " minder " of wheels, cogs, and levers—instead of training him to be an intelligent, thinking, and creative worker, who finds genuine pleasure in the pursuance of " the daily round, the common task," quite apart from the anticipation of Saturday's pay.

It is very rare in these times, though not impossible, to find a "shop" where any one workman completely carries through the construction of any "job" from start to finish, as was the custom many years ago. Nowadays, in nine-hundred-and-ninety-nine cases out of a thousand, every part that can possibly be cut and shaped by machinery—even to the very carving itself—is so cut and shaped, and all that remains is for the various component parts, arriving beautifully glass-papered and " clean " from the machine shop, to be fitted together and passed on to the polisher for the finishing touches. Let it be understood that I am not saying a single word against all this, but simply picturing what actually exists. What is one result of these modern methods of manufacture ? In one sense they are undoubtedly beneficial. Through them those of us who are blessed with but a small share of worldly goods are enabled to become possessed of tastefully-designed, solid, and perfectly-constructed furniture, which, a hundred years ago, would only have been within the reach of the wealthy; thus our homes are made vastly the richer. This is one view of the case, and a most important one withal, which, however, is intentionally ignored by a certain school of critics, who are prone to indulge in a wholesale condemnation of machinery in any shape or form, and raise the cry of Ichabod! Ichabod ! at the slightest

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