Types of Stains

With this is mind, we are going to do a brief rundown of some of the stains you might encounter, but are going to discuss the application of only those stains you can use with some degree of ease and assurance. Since the objective of staining is to color the wood to your satisfaction, we think you should use the product and technique most likely to achieve that end with a minimum of trouble. Purists in the field of restoration will be offended by this approach because, to many, the object of restoration is to "restore" the piece to its original condition, and not just to refinish it. We think there arc three stains that are

The moment the shiny look of the wood liiler disappears, wipe or scrape It from the surface, working across the grain. If you wipe, use a coarse cloth like burlap If you scrape, just draw the scraper, such as a piece of cardboard, across Ihe grain. After the filler has dried, sand ¡1 smooih and then apply a stain.

The moment the shiny look of the wood liiler disappears, wipe or scrape It from the surface, working across the grain. If you wipe, use a coarse cloth like burlap If you scrape, just draw the scraper, such as a piece of cardboard, across Ihe grain. After the filler has dried, sand ¡1 smooih and then apply a stain.

easy to use, provide few problems, offer good control, and produce the kind of results you want. These are pigmented oil wiping stains; water stains; and paste or jelly stains. There are others that you should recognize, although they are difficult for a beginner to use confidently,

Alcohol Stains These are alcohol-based colorings that produce good cooler colors tinged with green, rather than the warmer tones brought about by most stains. Some workers like them because they dry very quickly, but they also*produce overlap marks if you aren't extremely careful. Unless you are trying to set a record for finishing furniture, don't use them.

Pigmented Oit Stains Watch the terminology here. You will find good pigmented oil wiping stains everywhere, and these are excellent for your use. They are different from pigmented oil stains, an older type that was brushed on and allowed to dry. No wiping was employed. An even color sometimes was hard to achieve except by an expert. There also were unpigmented oil stains, which are applied in the same way and have the same hazards. The key word is wiping. As you buy, watch for it on the label.

Padding Stains Padding stains are very special. The name is applied to certain products put on existing finishes to enhance their appearance. Antique dealers, for example, might use padding stains to "freshen" up a new acquisition before putting it on the display floor. Most padding stains are simply thinned shellac or lacquer mixed with a dry coloring powder. They are wiped into the finish almost like a furniture polish to cover minor blemishes and revive the old finish. You can try this technique yourself on an old piece of furniture. You might find the result good enough so that refinishing isn't necessary.

Varnish Stains These aren't really stains at all, but are colored varnishes (or

Stains come in many varieties. Select the one thai will give you the best results.

Stains come in many varieties. Select the one thai will give you the best results.

lacquers) that are applied as both stain and final coat. If you want to do a quick refinishing job on some furniture in the children's room, for example, these might serve. Remember, however, that the color is in the finish, and any surface damage will immediately expose the bare wood under the finish. Because of this, a piece finished in this manner can deteriorate in appcarance very quickly.

Water Stains These stains are made by mixing a dye in water. You brush the colored water on the surface and continue to add more color with each application until you get the color you want. These stains are good because you have almost perfect control of the color. They don't show overlap marks, and you can mix up any color you want Water stains do raise the grain of the wood, however, and call for additional sanding or for prcraising of the grain. Sec "Deliberately Raising the Grain" (above) for details.

Water stains are not as available as many others, and your dealer might have to order them for you. They are slow to apply because you may have to brush on three or four applications to rcach the desired color, and must allow 24 hours for drying between applications.

NGR (Non-Grain Raising) Stains Once water stains were developed, somebody figured out that the grain raising problem could be eliminated if you dissolved the dye in some base other than water. The result was NGR stains, which brush on, won't raise the grain, and provide good coloring. They are not, however, as easy to control as water stains, and you can get a darker color than you want by too heavy an application. Practice with NGR stains before applying them.

Penetrating Oil Stains These arc found on every dealer's shelves. They arc pigmented oil stains that are brushed on and allowed to stand for 15 minutes or so, then wiped with a pad. Excess stain is

Because ot ease ol application and quality results, we prefer paste and jelly stains

removed during the wiping, but some stain penetrates the surface of the wood. It is easy to get a smooth, even tone with these stains, and you can control color to some degree by wiping earlier or later than 15 minutes. We think these are easy to use, raise few problems, and offer good results.

Paste and Jelly Stains These are the newest addition to the field, and we think they arc great. They are applied with a soft pad. like shoe polish. You have complete color control with them and absolutely no mess. The stain can't splash or splatter. You just rub it on, rub until the surface is even in color, and let it dry. We think these come as close to a foolproof stain as you can find.

Such stains may have been around before, but they received a big boost from Baitley (makers of fine unfinished furniture kits). Homer Formby (noted for his full line of furniture finishing products) and others selling directly to consumers rather than to professionals. Because the consumer audicnce is incxpcricnccd, caeh of these companies had to tailor a product that would provide top-notch results w ith minimal opportunities for failure.

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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