Surface Burns

In this ease, the repair is the same as for a surface blemish or stain. Scrape or sand away the damaged finish. If the wood under the finish has not been damaged or discolored, you can refitiish the spot successfully.

Deep Burns

A deep burn extends beneath the finish.

2 Next we took off the casters. There is a hole under each, indicating that these were not the ones used when the dresser was new The hole accommodated the neck of the original We will try to find substitutes for the old ones.

3 One of the most important problems that this dresser has is the missing veneer strips along the sides of the drawer openings We must find replacement veneer that is of the same kind of wood

WORKING ON This marble-THE 1852 topped 1852

DRESSER dresser requires extensive restoration work. Much of the frame needs regluing, some of the drawers need to be rebuilt, veneers on the front must be replaced, and the entire piece needs to be refinished.

2 Next we took off the casters. There is a hole under each, indicating that these were not the ones used when the dresser was new The hole accommodated the neck of the original We will try to find substitutes for the old ones.

1 The work begins with the removal of the hardware These drawers are in excellent condition

3 One of the most important problems that this dresser has is the missing veneer strips along the sides of the drawer openings We must find replacement veneer that is of the same kind of wood

4 Before restoration can begin we must disassemble the dresser After removing the screws beneath the marble top. we can lift off the section. The marble pieces need minimal work.

8 Now we reglue those frame members which need it, using a brush to apply the glue that has been squeezed into the aluminum dish.

9 We need a variety of clamps to glue the dresser pints together Notice the small wood pads that protect the finish of the dresser from the |aws of the clamps.

7 The old square nails have been left in and are now hammered into place as the base plate is glued back on the dresser.

10 Clamps and more clamps — every |omt we have glued is firmly clamped, the real secret of successful gluing

8 Now we reglue those frame members which need it, using a brush to apply the glue that has been squeezed into the aluminum dish.

5 Inspect a piece carefully so you do not overlook necessary repairs These small drawers and their glides need only to be refinished. Some drawer stops, however, will have to be reglued or replaced.

9 We need a variety of clamps to glue the dresser pints together Notice the small wood pads that protect the finish of the dresser from the |aws of the clamps.

6 The base plates look bad Should we replace them? We decide that the wood is sound, and only the appearance is bad It is important in restoration to retain as much of the original wood as possible, hence the decision to sand and replace these base plates Note the old square nails, a good clue to age These nails were not used much after 1890 and not at all after 1895

7 The old square nails have been left in and are now hammered into place as the base plate is glued back on the dresser.

10 Clamps and more clamps — every |omt we have glued is firmly clamped, the real secret of successful gluing

REPAIRING The most com-

BROKEN mon repair of

VENEER veneered surfaces is replacement of areas, usually near an edge, where the veneer has broken away. You seldom have the old pieces to reglue. Instead, you must use new veneer.

1 Buy veneer of the same wood To aid in matching the new and old wood we first strip the finish off the area to be repaired so we can see the actual color of the old veneer

2 Stripped of its old finish, the veneer near the repair area shows its true color — the color we must attempt to match. Note that while we stripped away the varnish, we used refinisher and thus did not remove the stain.

3 We applied stain to a corner of the new veneer to match it to the old As you can see, the color is a very close match.

4 The broken area has irregular edges which must be trimmed away. Using a metal straightedge and a small craft knife, we trim the patch to a rectangular shape

2 Stripped of its old finish, the veneer near the repair area shows its true color — the color we must attempt to match. Note that while we stripped away the varnish, we used refinisher and thus did not remove the stain.

5 The old veneer within the rectangular cut is removed by lifting with a sharp wood chisel

Project continued on next page

5 The old veneer within the rectangular cut is removed by lifting with a sharp wood chisel

Project continued on next page

6 The repair area is now ready for new veneer II is a clean rectangle in shape and all the old veneer has been removed

7 The next step is to cut a small cardboard pattern Cut and fit until the cardboard is an exact fit in the repair area Use the pattern to cut out the patch Move it around the veneer sheet until you find an area where the grain of the new veneer closely matches that of the veneer remaining on the old surface Now use a straightedge and either a veneer saw or a craft knife to cut out the patch, carefully following the cardboard pattern as you cut.

7 The next step is to cut a small cardboard pattern Cut and fit until the cardboard is an exact fit in the repair area Use the pattern to cut out the patch Move it around the veneer sheet until you find an area where the grain of the new veneer closely matches that of the veneer remaining on the old surface Now use a straightedge and either a veneer saw or a craft knife to cut out the patch, carefully following the cardboard pattern as you cut.

8 Check the veneer patch for size by placing it in the repair area When it is perfect, coat the area to be repaired and the underside of the veneer patch with contact cement Al low both to dry for at least an hour

9 After the contact cement has dried for at least an hour and is no longer sticky, place the patch in the repair area and roll it down Apply plenty of pressure as you roll.

8 Check the veneer patch for size by placing it in the repair area When it is perfect, coat the area to be repaired and the underside of the veneer patch with contact cement Al low both to dry for at least an hour

9 After the contact cement has dried for at least an hour and is no longer sticky, place the patch in the repair area and roll it down Apply plenty of pressure as you roll.

10 After the contact cement has set for a couple of hours, you can apply stain to the patch and the area around it. This is a demonstration proiect If you were working on this table insert, you would have stripped the entire surface, and now would stain the whole surface so that the color would be even all over

11 The paich is difficult to see To hide it furlher, a second light application of stain might be necessary after the first has dried Finish by lightly sanding, then applying varnish or lacquer

13 Examination shows the veneer to be lifted for only an inch or so in from the edge. The repair consists of working white glue into the opening Use a brush Hold the work vertical and apply plenty of glue so that it can run to the depth needed

12 Another common veneer problem is when the veneer lifts from the base wood, as it has here This table leaf was soaked during a flood and now must be restored

11 The paich is difficult to see To hide it furlher, a second light application of stain might be necessary after the first has dried Finish by lightly sanding, then applying varnish or lacquer

13 Examination shows the veneer to be lifted for only an inch or so in from the edge. The repair consists of working white glue into the opening Use a brush Hold the work vertical and apply plenty of glue so that it can run to the depth needed

12 Another common veneer problem is when the veneer lifts from the base wood, as it has here This table leaf was soaked during a flood and now must be restored

14 The final step is to clamp the repair area, using two long, flat boards and C-clamps Tighten the clamps as much as possible Wipe off all glue which is squeezed out with a damp cloth. Don't allow any to remain on the surface as it will interfere with later refinishing

15 Once in a while, veneer will bubble up in the center of a veneered piece Many times, a simple repair can be achieved by applying a hot iron to the bubble Place a dry wash cloth on the bubble and press the iron to the area Be careful not to hold it too long, as it may affect the finish

1 The black marks on this surface were caused by water They are in the wood, not just in the finish To get rid of them, you need these materials for bleaching: a two-part wood bleach you can buy at your home center; some vinegar, a lot of cotton swabs; and three little cups. The cups we use came from a photo developing kit and are numbered This makes it easy to remember where each chemical is.

2 Begin by applying Chemical A from the kit. as directed Remember that these are powerful and dangerous chemicals. Wear rubber gloves and eye protection (in case of accidental splashing) and follow the manufacturer's directions exactly as written.

REMOVING In those cases

STAINS BY where the objec-

BLEACHING tionable stain penetrated both the finish and the wood, you must sand or cut away wood to get rid of it. This will leave an indentation that you don't want. In the case of a deep stain, bleaching may come in handy, because instead of destroying wood to eliminate the deep stain, you may be able to bleach it out and save the wood.

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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