Abrasive Any material used to wear away, smooth or polish a surface, such as sandpaper used to smooth wood.
Alligatored finish Any finished surface that shows cracks caused by aging and drying.
Antiquing A decorative finish process. A basecoal is covered with a glaze, another paint, stain or varnish, that is partly wiped or brushed away to reveal some of the base-coat color.
Breathing mask A device to cover the nose and mouth and prevent inhalation of dust or other material in the air.
Clear finish Any of a number of wood finishes that allow the wood grain to be seen.
Coloring stick A type of colored wax crayon thai will hide small scratches in finished wood.
Denatured alcohol A solvent used to thin shellac.
Distressing A finishing process that adds dents, scratches, burns and other indications of wear and age 10 furniture for decorative reasons.
Dowel A wood pin frequently used to join two pieces of wood. The dowel fits into holes drilled in cach piece; this creates a dowel joint.
Fasteners Nails, screws, brads and other items ¡hat are used to join two items or to securc hardware to furniture or mi 11 work.
French polish A shellac finish applied in many layers with a rubber. The surface is sanded between coals with fine, oiled sandpaper. The final coat is often polished with rottenstone and oil.
Grain The growth pattern in the tree. The grain will look different in different trees and as a result of different sawing techniques.
Graining A specialty finish used to create the impression of wood grain with paint. Imitation wood grain.
Graphite powder A ground soft carbon material that is a dry lubricant.
Hardwood Wood that is cut from deciduous (leaf-shedding) trees. Although all such wood is designated as hardwood, some types are actually physically soft and easy to dent.
Lac beetle An insect that secretes a fluid which is made into lac flakes, the basic ingredient in shellac.
Lacquer A clear or colored finish material that dries to a hard, glossy finish. Usually applied with a sprayer, lacquer dries too quickly for smooth application with a brush.
Lacquer/shellac sticks Sticks of filler material used in the repair of surface damage to furniture. The filler must be melted onto the damaged surface and then trimmed smooth.
Linseed oil A finishing oil made from pressed flax seeds. An ingredient used in paint (oil-base) and varnish.
Mortise and tenon A joint in which one piece has a square or rectangular projection lhat fits snugly into a similarly shaped hole in the second piece.
Oil finish A clear finish produced by rubbing an oil, such as linseed, into bare or stained wood. The oil is rubbed to a soft, glowing finish.
Paint A pigmented varnish (oil-based) material that will completely covcr and hide the surface to which it is applied. Newer formulas combine rubber (latex) and water.
Polyurethane A varnish to which plastics have been added. It creates a durable finish.
Pounce bag A cloth bag containing chalk dust or other powder that leaves a dust mark on any surface on which the bag is hit
Pumiee A lava rock abrasive, pumicc is ground into a powder for a polish.
Raising the grain A process of damping the surface of wood to bring up or lift small fibers for final smooth sanding.
Rasp A rough sided tool designed to dig into and wear away material such as wood.
Reamalga mated finish A previously alligatored or roughened finish that has been made level by rubbing the surface with solvent thai melts ihe finish and lets it dry smooth.
Respirator A filler device worn over the nose and mouth to remove irritants—dust and toxic matter—from the air.
Rottenstone A fine powder abrasive made from crushing decomposed limestone. Rottenstone and oil are used as a fine finishing polish.
Rubbing varnish A finish material designed to provide an unusually high gloss when polished with rottenstone and oil.
Sanding block A padded wood block around which a piece of sandpaper is wrapped for hand sanding of a surface.
Sanding sealer A thinned shellac or other lightweight clear finish applied to wood to prevent the raising of wood grain by stain, filler or final finish material.
Sandpaper A coated abrasive—usually flint, garnet or aluminum oxide glued to a paper, cloth or plastic backing. It is used for smoothing or polishing woods.
Shellac A final, clear finish material created by dissolving lac flakes in denatured alcohol. A five pound cut of shellac is made by dissolving five pounds of lac flakes in one gallon of denatured alcohol. A one pound cut is one pound of flakes in a gallon of alcohol.
Softwood Wood that comes from logs of conebearing (coniferous) trees.
Spline A thin piece of wood used as a wedge. In a worn joint, a spline may be inserted into a cut to enlarge a dowel or a tenon so lhat the section will fit more tightly into the joint hole or mortise.
Stain Any of various forms of water, latex or oil based transparent or opaque coloring agents designed to penetrate the surface of the wood to color (stain) the material.
Tack rag A piece of cheesecloth or other lint-free fabric treated with turpentine and a small amount of varnish to create a sticky or tacky quality so the rag will pick up and hold all dirt, dust and lint that it touches.
Tooth A slight roughness created by light sanding of a smooth surface. The tooth allows a new application of a high gloss finish to adhere to a previously laid down high gloss finish.
Tung oil A water resistant finishing oil/ varnish ingredient made from crushed tung tree seeds. Tung oil dries more quickly than linseed oil.
Varnish A durable clear finish made of a mixture of resins, oil and alcohol or other volatile spirits. Varnish dries to a hard, smooth surface.
Veneer A thin sheet of wood applied to another picce of wood. Fine wood veneer is used in furniture.
Wood filler Liquid, paste, putty or plaster materials designed to fill in holes or grain lines so that final finishes may be applied to a smooth surface.
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