Bleach in Stripping

The use of bleach to lighten the color of wood in a small area has been described. Bleach also is used to lighten the wood color of furniture that has been stripped of the old finish. It can get rid of stain that the stripping did not remove, and it can lighten the color of wood that may have been darkened in the stripping process. However, bleaching an entire piece of furniture is quite different from bleaching a small patch. The job is a lot bigger, and you use much more bleach. Because you handle so much bleach, the big job is more hazardous.

4 As a final treatment, apply vinegar and water to the spot to neutralize the other chemicals Use a mixture of two parts water and one part vinegar After a few minutes, blot up the vinegar and allow the spot to dry.

5 Here is the spot after drying You can see that the black marks have disappeared There was stain on this surface and it, too. is gone Your first refinishing step will be to stain this spot first to bring its color level up. Allow it to dry, then apply a coat of stain to the whole top.

6 We think a flower pot made this semicircular mark We used the bleach here, too. and on some other spots on the top It worked nicely wherever it was used

7 Here are the newly bleached areas Bleaching also can be used to remove stains which have soaked deeply into the wood.

6 We think a flower pot made this semicircular mark We used the bleach here, too. and on some other spots on the top It worked nicely wherever it was used

7 Here are the newly bleached areas Bleaching also can be used to remove stains which have soaked deeply into the wood.

8 Now the top is ready for refinishing First sand thoroughly. Since it is already reasonably smooth, use a fine paper and don't sand too much.

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9 Following sanding, wipe the surface clean with a tack rag Lean on the rag so that it digs the sanding dust out of the grain.

8 Now the top is ready for refinishing First sand thoroughly. Since it is already reasonably smooth, use a fine paper and don't sand too much.

10 We decided to use a gelled stain here Gelled slams are the easiest to apply and control Use clean cheesecloth as an applicator

11 Apply the stain like shoe polish Use a thin coat and spread it pretty well by rubbing it out. You can keep the color even simply by not applying too much in any one spot If a place looks too dark, rub it out with a clean cheesecloth pad. removing excess stain Wait fifteen minutes after covering the whole surface; then wipe again to pick up stain which has not been absorbed Allow the surface to dry overnight. If you want it a shade darker, apply another coat the next day

11 Apply the stain like shoe polish Use a thin coat and spread it pretty well by rubbing it out. You can keep the color even simply by not applying too much in any one spot If a place looks too dark, rub it out with a clean cheesecloth pad. removing excess stain Wait fifteen minutes after covering the whole surface; then wipe again to pick up stain which has not been absorbed Allow the surface to dry overnight. If you want it a shade darker, apply another coat the next day

1 Using a furniture refinisher (Formby, Hope. Squaw Alley brands) and 0000 steel wool, we strip away the old finish, leaving the original stain and the wood's patina

4 We chose a liquid wiping stain for this job but could have used a |elled stain The first step is to apply a light coat of stain to each part of the piece and allow it to stand for ten minutes

4 We chose a liquid wiping stain for this job but could have used a |elled stain The first step is to apply a light coat of stain to each part of the piece and allow it to stand for ten minutes

5 Next, wipe the stain thoroughly to expose the gram of the wood and achieve the proper color Allow the stain to dry overnight before putting on the final finish

STAINING AND Once a piece is FINISHING A completely re-

RESTORED stored, it is time

PIECE to work on the finish. There are several methods to use, but the order remains basically the same. You must remove the old finish, restain (if necessary), refinish and hand rub.

1 Using a furniture refinisher (Formby, Hope. Squaw Alley brands) and 0000 steel wool, we strip away the old finish, leaving the original stain and the wood's patina

2 After taking off the old finish, the piece is sanded with fine paper Old wood is dry and sands quickly, so don't overdo it. Watch the surface as you work to check progress.

3 Remove all traces of sanding dust by wiping with a tack rag Press hard to get all dust out of the wood grain, and keep wiping until the tack rag stays clean when you wipe an area.

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6 Sand the surface before applying varnish. This should be a light treatment. Then clean away the dust with a tack cloth.

7 With light on opposite side of the surface, you can observe how the varnish is going down, and spot areas your brush has missed.

8 Varnish is laid down with the brush, not brushed out. You want a good coat, fairly heavy, evenly applied across the surface

9 There are two ways to achieve that lovely hand-rubbed final finish. The first is to use pumice and light oil rubbed with a felt pad On this drawer, which has three coats of clear polyure-thane varnish, we have sprinkled pumice, and are now adding a few drops of light oil.

10 With a felt pad mounted in the hand sander, the pumice and oil mixture is rubbed over the surface. This treatment will knock off any dust bumps, level the finish, and get rid of any gloss Pumice is a mild abrasive but don't over rub or you may cut through the finish.

11 After rubbing the surface out. wipe it thoroughly with a soft cloth to clean up all remnants of the pumice and oil When you finish, you should feel no oil on the surface, which should be extremely smooth and have a soft, warm color

12 The second method of hand rubbing is with wet-and-dry sandpaper (400 to 600 grit) and water. A sprinkling bottle used for dampening clothes for ironing is handy for applying the water.

13 Rub sufficiently to produce a completely smooth, gloss-free surface, using light hand pressure Be sure to keep an even pressure on the sander Finally, wipe the surface dry and finish with a lemon oil or paste wax treatment.

RESTORING AN This old Seth OLD SETH Thomas clock has

THOMAS CLOCK been sitting in a sunny window for years. Heat and light had reduced the finish to a maze of tiny cracks and alligatoring. The top appeared to have no finish at all.

1 Before attempting to refinish, we must determine what Kind of finish is on it. The testing procedure is to try a small area first with denatured alcohol, then with lacquer thinner Alcohol here is applied with a cotton swab

2 After about two minutes, the finish appears to be softening. A cheesecloth pad is rubbed across the area to test it

3 The denatured alcohol has softened the finish, which indicates that the finish is shellac. If it had been lacquer or varnish, the denatured alcohol would not have affected it.

4 Reamalgamation is a technique for repairing scratches and alligatored surfaces in shellac and lacquer finishes. Here, the old clock is reamalgamated by saturating the surface with denatured alcohol and keeping it wet for a few minutes, until the old finish melts The alcohol is applied by means of a soft pad

2 After about two minutes, the finish appears to be softening. A cheesecloth pad is rubbed across the area to test it

5 As we apply the denatured alcohol to the top of the clock an interesting event occurs. The top looked like bare wood Now however, the old finish reappears as alcohol is applied to it.

9 Shellac will fill sandpaper quickly so keep a toothbrush handy to clean the paper frequently

Reamalgamation

8 We have decided that time (some 75 years) and the reamalgamation have resulted in a finish that is too thin. We decide to apply a new shellac finish We first sand the old finish with fine paper to remove any blemishes

10 When shellacking, use a top quality brush and gently lay the coating on. Don't brush it out. as you would with paint Here a 3-pound cut of shellac is used straight from the can. and we plan on 4 coats If you use a 1 or 2-pound cut. increase the number of coats

6 The line between the dried out finish and the reamalgamated area is clearly visible. The clock is beginning to look more like its old sell

7 The reamalgamation is continued on the front of the clock Reamalgamation is uselul for eliminating scratches on shellac and varnished surfaces Gently treat the scratch with solvent, using a cotton swab to first soften and then spread the finish

8 We have decided that time (some 75 years) and the reamalgamation have resulted in a finish that is too thin. We decide to apply a new shellac finish We first sand the old finish with fine paper to remove any blemishes

9 Shellac will fill sandpaper quickly so keep a toothbrush handy to clean the paper frequently

1 Furniture kits arrive at your house neatly packed in cartons This one is the Heathkit Butler's Table, and the box contains all wood parts, hardware, stain and varnish, beautifully detailed plan and instruction sheets, and even such items as drill bits, drill bit depth gauge, and sandpaper

5 Sand each tenon carefully so as not to change its shape or the face of the adjoining wood, then fit it into its mortise.

6 Assemble the table base without glue Here the last side rail goes into place after the tenon was sanded to fit

3 To sand the small grooves on the front corners of the legs, we made a sanding block and did the job by hand The sanding block is a piece of wood that fits the grooves

HOW TO BUILD A PIECE OF UNFINISHED FURNITURE

In recent years, unfinished furniture kits featuring fine designs and hardwood construction have become more and more popular. The kits come complete with all the tools and with instructions. All that is required is patience and care to create a fine piece of furniture for the home.

5 Sand each tenon carefully so as not to change its shape or the face of the adjoining wood, then fit it into its mortise.

2 The most important task in finishing finewood kits (this one is in solid mahogany) is the sanding Each face of each piece must be thoroughly sanded, first with 220 grit and then with 280 grit sandpaper. This can be done by hand, but it would be a long job The sander we used is a "finish'' sander, made especially for furniture finishing It is small, square in shape, and orbits at 10,000 rpm You can use a regular oscillating sander for most of the work.

6 Assemble the table base without glue Here the last side rail goes into place after the tenon was sanded to fit

4 All of the table pints are mortise-and-tenon After you have finished sanding all parts, the base is assembled dry. During this assembly, you probably will have to sand the tenons a bit to make them fit. Note that we have placed a soft bath towel on the workbench to protect the sanded parts as we work

7 Now each leg and rail is numbered so that when they are reassembled for gluing, you will get each tenon in the mortise

12 Using a soft lead pencil, draw a line marking the inside dimensions of the base on the table top Be careful not to move the base during this operation or you will have to stop and remea-sure its position

13 Now insert a scribe, a long nail or any other sharp, thin tool in each of the screw holes in each rail. Tap the scribe enough to make an indentation in the table top.

10 When the base has been assembled and glued, place it on an absolutely level surface and apply a web clamp. Let the glue dry overnight.

Bead Glue Applied

8 To glue the pieces of the base together, a thin bead of glue is applied to the side walls of each mortise No glue is put on the tenons Be careful not to use too much glue, and do not allow it to get on the surface of the wood

9 The rail is fitted into the mortise after glue was applied If necessary, tap the rail in place with a rubber mallet. If any glue squeezes out. wipe it immediately with a well-dampened cloth A better way is to allow the squeezed out glue to dry, and then trim it away with a single-edge razor blade The best way is to use only enough glue so that none squeezes out.

10 When the base has been assembled and glued, place it on an absolutely level surface and apply a web clamp. Let the glue dry overnight.

13 Now insert a scribe, a long nail or any other sharp, thin tool in each of the screw holes in each rail. Tap the scribe enough to make an indentation in the table top.

14 Lubricate the screws by rubbing each in a bar of face soap before driving Place the tip of the bit in each indentation on the table top, with the depth gauge in place. Holding the depth gauge with a pliers, drill straight down as deep as the gauge will permit. When the drilling is finished, you have pre-drilled the holes for the screws which will hold the top on the base

11 Now place the table top face down on the towel on the workbench and position the base (with the glue now dried) in the center Measure the distance from the edge of the top to each rail to be sure the location is correct

12 Using a soft lead pencil, draw a line marking the inside dimensions of the base on the table top Be careful not to move the base during this operation or you will have to stop and remea-sure its position

15 Next place the side leaves of the table on the bench beside the top and fit the brass hinges into the cutouts The fit will be snug and you may have to try a hinge several times to find a cutout that is right for it.

16 Once all hinges have been located, use the scribe to scratch a number on the back of each, and pencil a corresponding number on the wood of the cutout.

15 Next place the side leaves of the table on the bench beside the top and fit the brass hinges into the cutouts The fit will be snug and you may have to try a hinge several times to find a cutout that is right for it.

22 The staining has progressed nicely. We found it handy to have a small brush to work stain into corners and grooves A cloth around the end of the brush handle is used for wiping these areas after staining

17 Again using the depth gauge on the drill bit. drill a hole for each hinge screw. There are 6 holes per hinge, and 8 hinges.

21 The paste stain is wiped on with a clean, soft, lint-free cloth. Stain an area about a fool square at a time Wipe the stain on. rub it in for no more than 30 seconds, then use a clean cloth to wipe any excess stain from the area

23 After the base has been stained, turn the table over and begin work on the top The procedure is the same as before If the color of the piece is not as dark as you want, apply a second coat of stain before varnishing, but only after the first coat has dried A good feature of paste stains is the color control they provide You keep applying stain until you get the color you want.

18 Remove the base from the top and with the top still on the work bench, place a thin line of glue around the table about % in. from the pencil line you drew The glue bead should be thin, continuous and the correct distance from the guide line

19 Now the screws are driven through the holes in the side rails and into the holes which had been drilled into the top earlier These screws must be turned tight to pull the top into close contact with the base

20 Whenever you prepare to apply finishing material to any part which has been sanded, wipe the entire piece with a tack cloth to eliminate all dust To be thorough, wipe it twice, using different tack cloths. You will be surprised at how much dust comes off on the second wiping

16 Once all hinges have been located, use the scribe to scratch a number on the back of each, and pencil a corresponding number on the wood of the cutout.

HOW TO REPAIR Most of the time, DENTS AND the best way to re-GOUGES pair a serious dent or gouge is to fill it. There are a number of filler formulations now available for use on wood, and each type has its advantages and disadvantages.

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Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

Woodworking Tools and Installation Tips

There are a lot of things that either needs to be repaired, or put together when youre a homeowner. If youre a new homeowner, and have just gotten out of apartment style living, you might want to take this list with you to the hardware store. From remolding jobs to putting together furniture you can use these 5 power tools to get your stuff together. Dont forget too that youll need a few extra tools for other jobs around the house.

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Responses

  • Mandy
    What is a cheesecloth pad?
    8 years ago
  • Roman
    How to sand tiny grooves of wood chair legs?
    8 years ago
  • leonardo fiorentini
    How to sand fine lines in chair legs?
    8 years ago

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