Applying Stain And Filler

When you are filling open-pore wood or repairing minor scratches in the surfacc of the wood, you will do the filling cither before or after the application of the stain. The choice is dependent upon the makeup of the two materials. Some fillers and stains will combine badly unless applied in a certain sequence. Application directions will appear on the packages. The directions will be specific about the sequence of application. As a guideline, however, remember the following most fillers will...

The Mortise and Tenon

A tenon is a tongue, and a mortise is a slot. In the mortise-and-tenon joint, a tongue is formed at the end of one piece of wood, and a slot of the same shape is made in the other piece of wood. Then the tongue is inserted into the slot to make the joint. This is one of the most important of the furniture joints, very strong and with excellent appearance. You can cut tenons on the ends of wood pieces using a backsaw or a router. Use your wood chisels to make the mortise. Good measuring...

Glue Types

Here arc some of the properties of the adhesives you should use in furniture restoration. These glues should take care of all your needs, so stock up on them. Also keep an eye on the shelves at your home center store, because chemists are working constantly to develop new formulas and techniques. Polyvinyl Glues The white creamy glues that comc in plastic squeeze bottles (Elmer's is a leading brand name) are polyvinyls. They are inexpensive, set in an hour or so, and work in just about every...

Step Installing The Webbing

Lay the moist webbing over the opening. Center it carefully and align it with the guide string you placed in the chair seat to be sure the hole lines run straight from back to front. Now use the hardwood wedges to drive the webbing down into the groove. Begin by driving the first wedge into the groove at the center of the back rail. Work carefully so as not to tear the webbing apart. Now go to the front rail. Stretch the webbing across the opening so that it has a slight sag. This sag will be...

Identifying Joint Types

Clip Art Picture Piece Wood

Anyone doing a simple restoration must bother with an understanding of joints because if you are going to talk to furniture people, and perhaps buy and sell furniture, you should be able to handle the jargon. In addition, you probably will find it necessary to make some of these joints yourself, as replacements for broken joints on the furniture you repair. The eight basic woodworking joints are detailed below. There are variations on all of these, but once you can identify the eight, the...

Steam Swelling

Steam usually does a better job of swelling the wood than water alone. To steam a dent, apply water to the dent as in the HOW TO REPAIR A guest places a WATER RINGS glass on a lovely ta-ON FINISHES hie top, and later you find a white ring where the bottom of the glass rested. It is a discouraging sight. The whiteness is called blooming. which occurs because the finish absorbs the moisture from the bottom of the glass. Lacquer and shellac finishes bloom readily. Some varnishes w ill bloom, but...

Step Seven Applying The Binder Cane

After the weaving of the seat has been completed, binder cane is applied around the perimeter of the seat to give a neat and finished appearance. Binder cane is identical to weaving cane in all respects, but is just one or (preferably) two sizes larger. First, identify the binding cane in the hank of cane you purchased. It is bigger than the rest. Now measure off a piece that is long enough to go entirely around the newly caned seat, with a couple of inches to spare. Soak this piece of cane for...

How to Buy Shellac

It is essential to always use fresh shellac. Once the can has been opened, the contents will deteriorate within six months to such an extent that they will not dry after application. Even in cans that have never been opened, shellac deteriorates, which is the reason that many manufacturers date their products. When buying shellac, check the date, and do not buy the product if it has exceeded the expiration date. If you are offered undated cans, buy them only with the understanding that you will...

Choosing and Using Power Tools

Power tools do any job quicker and often better than hand tools. The costs of good power tools have comc down in recent years, so they are generally affordable. We think they pay for themselves in time saved and in work quality. As with any tool, however, you must practice with a power tool to find out how to get the most out of it. There are two classes of power tools, the portable and those that mount on a workbench or stand alone. The bench tools and stand-alone units include the wood lathe,...

Glossary

Abrasive Any material used to wear away, smooth or polish a surface, such as sandpaper used to smooth wood. Alligatored finish Any finished surface that shows cracks caused by aging and drying. Antiquing A decorative finish process. A basecoal is covered with a glaze, another paint, stain or varnish, that is partly wiped or brushed away to reveal some of the base-coat color. Breathing mask A device to cover the nose and mouth and prevent inhalation of dust or other material in the air. Clear...

Step Preventing Reoccurance

After the warp is gone, prevent its return by tapping and gluing thin shims into the saw kerfs. These should hold it flat. To begin the repair, cut saw kerfs in the underside of the piece. Dampen the top then turn ihe piece over and force it fiat To begin the repair, cut saw kerfs in the underside of the piece. Dampen the top then turn ihe piece over and force it fiat To prevent the return of the warp insert narrow shims mto the kerfs These will force the wood to its original flat shape To...

Making Dowels

You can make your own dowels by buying a hardwood dowel rod of the right diameter at your home center, and cutting off dowels of the needed length. However, a dowel fits very snugly into the hole you drilled for it. So snugly, in fact, that as the dowel goes in, it may force glue to fill the bottom of the hole. The resulting hydraulic pressure can prevent the entry of the dowel. To remedy this, put your newly made dowel in a vise and use the hacksaw to cut one or two slots, l t> inch deep, in...

How to Purchase

Identifying a penetrating resin at the store isn't always easy because the makers don't often use the words penetrating resin in their names. Read the instructions Penetrating resin is an especially good finishing material lor softwoods such as pine The material Is absorbed into the surface and protects It from dents and other damage. 120 How to Apply a Tung Oil Finish Applying the Old Fashioned Wax Finish and look for both of these words in them, and look for instructions that tell you to wipe...

Index

Alligatored finish, 77, 92-93, 100-101 applying, 124 Antiques, 10-11 Apron. 54 Backsaw, 18, 35, 40, 41, 43, 58, 59, 60 Band saw, 21 Bar clamps, 17, 19, 75 Bartley, 111, 150 Ball leg repair, 72-73 Bare wood finish, 78 Basement work area, 16, 103 Belt sander, 22, 58 Bench vise, 21, 35, 43, 44 Bentwood furniture repair, 68 arm, 68-69 rocking chair runner. 70 split wood, 68 Bicycle oil, 49, 79 Binder cane, 133. 141-142 Black Ash, 31 Black Cherry, 31 Black Walnut, 31 Bleaching, 86-87, 107, 108 sia...

Choosing and Using Hand Tools

Hammers Hammers are not a big item in furniture restoration, since few if any joints require nailing. Three types come in handy. Standard claw hammers The best quality claw hammers are drop forged and have hickory handles. Look at the claw before you buy. It should have fine inside edges that will slide under the head of a nail easily, and the curve of the claw Three hammers will serve you in furniture work-a rubber mallet, a magnetic tack hammer, and a small (7 oz ) claw hammer. should be...

Furniture Repair Nails

Although nails aren't used in making furniture joints, they do have some uses in furniture. The nails and other fasteners you may see are finishing or casing nails, upholstery nails, tacks, dowel pins, corrugated fasteners, and staples. The common nail has a head. Finishing and casing nails have virtually no heads and, when used, are driven below the work surface with a nail set. Then the hole is filled to hide the nail. They can be bought in lengths ranging from I to 3 inches, but when buying...

Hidden Screws

Chair rails arc sometimes attached to chair posts by large screws driven through the backs of the posts and into the rail. These screws may be countersunk, and hidden by small wood plugs fitted into the holes and glued in place. You must pry the plug out in order to remove the screw. The best tool for this is an awl (an ice pick is a substitute), which you tap into the plug near one edge. The tapping may dislodge the plug. If not, then press the awl away from the center of the plug to provide...

Other Drawer Problems

If the drawer seems balky and refuses to slide in and out easily, look for any of these problems. 1. The sliding area on the bottom of the drawer may simply need lubrication. Spray it and the frame on which it rides with silicone lubricant. 2. The sides of the drawer may have swollen due to moisture absorption. Suspect this especially if the piece has been stored in a damp area. Try baking a small drawer in a warm not hot oven about 120 degrees for half an hour to get rid of the moisture. For...

Drawer Construction

In good drawer construction, the sides arc normally dovetailed to the drawer front, and the back is dovetailed to the side-pieces. The drawer bottom fits into a groove in the lower parts of the sides and is held in place by small glue blocks on the bottom. To disassemble the drawer, first remove the glue blocks, then slide the bottom out. Finally, tap gently against the inside of the side panels to disengage the dovetails. If the drawer has guides and most big drawers should you will see them...

Assembling and Finishing Furniture Kits

Scouting your attic and the garage sales to find good old pieces to restore is one way to acquire good furniture for your home. Another way is to buy unfinished furniture. And a third method rapidly growing in popularity is to build fine furniture in kit forni. For years, unfinished furniture has been the cheap way to add a bookcase, a night stand, or a chest of drawers to the home. Most of the unfinished furniture available was made of pine, spruce or other softwoods. and was of simple,...

Recent Product Solutions Formby Products

Homer Formby is well known for his line of furniture finishing products. A third-generation refinisher of fine furniture, he thought about the stripping problem and reasoned that in the great majority of cases, there was no problem with the stain, only with the deteriorated finish. So why not simply take off the finish and retain the original stain, and then apply a new finish over the old stain This would make a lot of re finishing much quicker and easier. Having decided that there was no...

Replacement Rungs

Rungs and stringers can be so badly shattered that no surgery of any kind can mend them. Then ihe only thing to do is replace them. If the pieces to be replaced are square or rectangular or round and un-shaped in any way, you should be able to buy hardwood of the approximate size and make new ones without trouble. More often than not, however, these pieces have been turned on a lathe and given some kind of shape. Then the only way to replace them is either to shape a duplicate piece on a lathe...

How Many Tools Are Needed

Professionals in all trades share one secret the right tools make the job easier and quicker and do the work better. Furniture restoration is no different. It will pay you handsomely in the long run to acquire the right tools. Fortunately, it won't cost an arm and a leg to add to your present tool collection, but there will be some expense. You need to buy good tools only once, and you can amortize their cost over a large number of jobs. If you find need for an unusual and expensive tool that...

Glue injector

Furniture Joints

Another type of glue gun is the glue injector, similar to a medical hypodermic syringe but made of plastic. The injector enables you to injcct glue deep into a loose joint in order to fix the joint without taking the furniture apart. In some cases, you can insert the long, thin tube of the injector directly into the loose joint. In others, you must drill a ' 6-inch hole near the joint to gain access. The glue injector does a good job on temporary repairs, but once furniture joints have started...

Step Smoothing the Patch

When the dent has filled, use a small flexible spatula, heated in a flame to smooth the surface. To heat the blade, use the flame from a gas stove or Sterno canned heat. Don't use a candle because carbon will gather on the blade and will discolor the patch. Step 4 Trimming the Patch After the shellac has cooled, use a single-edge razor blade or a very sharp wide-bladed chisel to carefully trim the rounded top down to the level of the surface. The last step is to buff the surfacc with an 8 0 or...

Repair for Fractured Bentwood

Creative Furniture Refurbishing

Another type of problem you can encoun- Our old rocker had two problems she beni wood at the bottom of the arm was broken, with a chip missing from ihe wood ai the point where the arm joins the back of the chair. Our old rocker had two problems she beni wood at the bottom of the arm was broken, with a chip missing from ihe wood ai the point where the arm joins the back of the chair. 1 The arm is fastened to the chair seat by means of a bolt. The wood around the bolt has been fractured, which...

Lacquered or Shellacked Finishes

Reamalgamation can cure both problems on furniture that is lacquered or shellacked. If the deep scratch goes through the finish to the wood, and has caused some of the finish material to flake away, you might apply a thin coat of new finish material to the scratch. Use an artist's brush and carefully place the clear lacquer or shellac in the scratch without getting any on the surrounding surface. Allow this to dry. Then reamalgamate. The new material will serve as a filler during the...

Gluing the Split Wood

The most common use of bentwood is in light chairs and some rocking chairs. To make these, long wooden rods an inch or more in diameter are bent into continuous curves. One piece of wood may be formed into the back legs and curved back of a straight chair, or into the rockers and arms of a rocking chair. This kind of bending, while it makes very strong furniture, puts great stress along the outside of sharply curved parts. When trouble occurs, it usu- Bend the splil in place and, remembering to...

Dovetail Joints

Wood Part For Fixing Chairs

Lie careful in tapping dovetail joints apart. You do not want to break any of the fingers of the joint. Tap with a rubber mallet against one joined part a drawer side, for example so that it comes straight out and is not twisted or turned as it is freed. Chair buttons or other wood plugs serve more purpose than just decoration Remove them to find the wood screws they conceal. Chair buttons or other wood plugs serve more purpose than just decoration Remove them to find the wood screws they...

Types of Stains

With this is mind, we are going to do a brief rundown of some of the stains you might encounter, but are going to discuss the application of only those stains you can use with some degree of ease and assurance. Since the objective of staining is to color the wood to your satisfaction, we think you should use the product and technique most likely to achieve that end with a minimum of trouble. Purists in the field of restoration will be offended by this approach because, to many, the object of...

Repair Chipped Plywood

If the top is made of plywood, and only a layer or two of the plywood has broken away, follow the same procedure as for a whole solid wood corner, but do not cut away that part of the top which remains unless it is cracked or badly damaged. Use Missing pieces such as this are a common problem in furniture repair. If the chip is still around, you can ust glue it back on But since no one ever seems to save the chip, a replacement must be created. Missing pieces such as this are a common problem...

Caning Tools

Only very simple tools are needed for caning. You should buy about two dozen hardwood caning pegs when you order your supply of canc. These inexpensive pegs are used to mark the center strands on the work piece and to hold cane in starting holes until you tie ii in place. An awl we use a regular ice pick is used to aid in inserting strands of cane in the holes. You'll need about half a dozen ordinary spring clothespins to hold the cane while it soaks. A bucket for soaking the cane, a standard...

Dowel Broke Assembling Furniture

Broken Rubber Hole

In one kind of break, the part snaps off just at the hole, leaving the dowel portion in the hole. The rung itself will then have a ragged end. The repair depends on how much of the body of the rung was destroyed. If the ragged end is very near the part of the rung which served as a dowel, you are lucky. You can fix the rung by following these steps 1 dig the dowel scrap out of the hole 2 fill the hole with a hardwood plug glued in place. Hush with the surface 3 clamp the rung in a vise to hold...

Replacing a Rocking Chair Runner

Rocking chair runners are made in three ways. In some chairs, the runner is cut from hardwood and bent to a curved shape in others, it is cut from hardwood in the curved shape, so no bending is required. In yet others, the runner is made by laminating three curved pieces together. If you must replace a runner, use the third method lamination works best because it requires no bending and at the same time produces a strong unit. Step 1 Cutting the Pieces First make a pattern from the side of the...

The Lap Joint

Exactly the same as the crisscross joint, except that the pieces overlap each other A full lap joint looks neat and finished Only the receiving piece of wood is cut, the cross rail fits into the opening A half-lap pint mates two pieces of equal thickness Both pieces are cut, the crossrail then fits into the mating piece A half lap joint requires care. Mark a gauge line indicating half the thickness of the end to be cut Then mark the width of the crossrail onto the receiving piece. A half lap...

Hints and Cautions

When the surface is soft, it can easily pick up lint and dust. For that reason, use lint- free cloths and work in an area where dust is not a problem. Both shellac and lacquer dry quickly, so the surfaces do not have to be protected for long. For reamalgamation of shellac, use only pure denatured alcohol. Some alcohols are cut with water, and the water in these mixtures will cause the surface to turn white. In addition, work with shellac oil a day when the humidity is low or in an a...

Stick Shellac

This is a specialty filler product, not sold everywhere. Woodworking and craft supply houses have it. What you buy are small sticks of colored hard shellac. There also are stick lacquers and stick sealing waxes available. These sticks melt when heated, and the softened material is used to fill holes and dents. Color Choices The lacquer and the shellac can be purchased in both opaque and transparent forms, and you should be able to buy a color very close to the one you need. The best way is to...

Bleach in Stripping

Bead Glue Applied

The use of bleach to lighten the color of wood in a small area has been described. Bleach also is used to lighten the wood color of furniture that has been stripped of the old finish. It can get rid of stain that the stripping did not remove, and it can lighten the color of wood that may have been darkened in the stripping process. However, bleaching an entire piece of furniture is quite different from bleaching a small patch. The job is a lot bigger, and you use much more bleach. Because you...

Product Sources

The following is a listing of sources for products, materials, tools and kits discussed in this book. The list is by no means comprehensive, and is intended to serve as a starting point when these items prove difficult to find in your own area. Most of the companies listed do business by mail and publish catalogs for which you can write. Some charge a fee for these, but we have found the price worthwhile in most cases, for they can be highly instructive and are fun to read. Two Important places...