Various forms of leg framing suitable for stands and stools are illustrated in 211. Figure 211:1 shows a typical carcass stand of four straight legs, front framing rail (211:1 A), back rail (211 :B) and side rails (211:1 C). The joints can have mortises and tenons either mitred as 211:2A, or halved together (211:2B) which gives maximum length over half the width in each tenon. This form of construction with rails inset from the face of the legs allows the tenons to be placed in the best position, but thin flush rails necessitate barefaced tenons (211:3). As, however, there is always a tendency for this type of tenon to pull the framing out of square under cramping/clamping pressure, it is advisable to provide a small inner shoulder even if it is only 1/16 in (2 mm) wide. There should also be a small shoulder at the base of the tenon so that any slackness in the length of the mortise will be hidden by the rail. All these tenons are not shown haunched, and there is no real necessity
for this, for corner blocks (211:4) can usually be fitted. Figure 211:5 shows a dowelled construction which is quicker and not necessarily inferior if the dowels are of sufficient length, well fitted and their positions staggered as at (A). A composite joint with one rail tenoned and the other dowelled is shown at 211:5B which is often used in chair-work. The mortise and tenon is cut first, the rail glued in and the dowel holes then bored through the tenon. A point to watch in boring dowel sockets with screw-nose dowel-bits is to keep well clear of the outer face of the leg, and not to allow the long screw of the bit to prick through. If less than about 3/16 in (5 mm) substance is left between the bottom of the socket or mortise and the outer face, the slight clearance always left for surplus glue has been known to show through as a faint depression even in hard oak.
Various other stand layouts are shown in 212:1-4. In 212:1 the long rails are tenoned or dowelled into the legs, and the inset cross-rails slot dovetailed with either double taper or bare-face taper (212:5, 6). Figure 212:2 adopts a similar procedure, and if there is any tendency for the stand to whip, the back dovetail slots can be reinforced with heavy glue blocks on the inside. Heavy stands (212:3) with one intermediate rail can have the rail double tenoned and wedged (212:7). A stool arrangement is often used for sideboards, where the long rails (212:8) are bridled through and the cross-rails either slot dovetailed or housed/dadoed and glue blocked on the inside.
A curved stand is shown in 212:9 and various methods of connecting the rails in 212:13. They can be either cut from the solid or laminated, dependent on the sweep. In 212:13A dowels are used to support the weak cross grain in a pronounced sweep in solid wood, and 212:13B a bridled method. If the leg has to follow the curve and lie flush with the rails then the latter must be slightly inset and the leg rounded off after assembly. Figure 212:3c is a dovetail method and 212:13D a bridle and tenon for inset legs, while 212:13E shows a tenoned construction halving the tenons, as shown by the dotted lines, for greater length. A cross-stand for small tables is shown in 212:10,14 and if the cross is at 90° it can be dowelled together or halved, but if the crossover is at any other angle then it must be halved as in 212:15. In 212:11 the top bearers are dovetailed as 212:16 and the long rails tenoned or dowelled in, while in 212:12 the rails are slot dovetailed as 212:17.
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