Methods of attachment or jointing are by brazing, torch or arc welding, metal connectors or screw assemblies. Chair posts, table legs, etc. are normally fitted with protective caps of hard rubber, plastic or knock-in wooden caps cut slightly oversize and driven in wedge tight. Connection of wood members, cross-rails, etc. can be done by securing a threaded bolt to the metal section and carrying it though a prebored hole in the wood member with a captive nut in a small mortise which can be tightened up to take up the slack if the wood shrinks. Alternatively, there are knock-down fittings available. Flat strips can be bent cold round suitable forms in a bending machine, but tubes must be filled with rammed sand, steel balls, pitch, etc. and the ends securely plugged or the bending will kink the inner curve. Metal extrusion L-, T-, or u-sections, etc. are filled or packed up with thin metal strips before bending, and heavy sections may have to be heated. For methods of fabrication reference should be made to the standard books on metal-working. However, the following is a brief outline of the properties of metal and the processes involved in working it, many of which would need to be undertaken by specialist engineering or metal finishing firms.

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The Complete Guide To Wood Finishing

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