Laying Out

Cutting lists usually take the gross length of the rails right across the width of the frame irrespective of the type of tenon. Laying out can be done entirely by measurement, but in practice it is better to mark the stiles clearly with top marks left' and 'right', and face marks uppermost on the inside or panel edge, and place them on the bench-top in the finished position, allowing an extra 1/8 in (3 mm) on the overall width for cleaning off and fitting. The rails are then marked and placed over the stiles also in the correct position, and allowing 1/8 in (3 mm) extra on the height. The critical positions of the rail shoulders, i.e. the net panel opening width, are then ticked, and also the opening height on the stiles. The stiles are then hand-cramped/ clamped together and all the measurements— actual height of door frame (plus 1/8 in [3 mm] extra), depth of haunch or seating, position of mortise allowing for any groove or rebate in the rails—squared across and the rails similarly treated for shoulder length (width of panel opening) and length of tenon. The actual width of the tenon and the depth of the haunch can be decided later after the mortise has been cut. The mortise-gauge is then set for the width of the mortise and gauged from the face sides on both stiles and rails, after which the mortises can be chiselled, first boring out a series of vertical holes to save labour. When completed the tenons can be sawn in with the cuts always on the waste side of the marks. Figures 143 and 144 show the rail canted over first for one cut and then for the other, with the rail uprighted for the final cut. The shoulder-lines are marked with a knife and sawn through, and the tenons offered

Sawing in tenon (first cut)

mortises have round ends also. Figure 142:10 is the orthodox method where the rail lines up with the face of the legs or stile and the tenon must be offset.

Sawing in tenon (first cut)

against the mortise for their final width and position of haunch. (Figure 145 also shows use of bench-hook for sawing shoulders, small parts, etc.)

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