Jointingjoining Methods

Jointing methods are, therefore, designed to hold or lock pieces of wood together, either in the same plane or in opposing planes, so that the method of attachment is permanent and strong against loading stresses, thrusts, sudden impact, the wear and tear of daily use and the constant movement of the wood fibres, themselves ceaselessly moving in sympathy with the atmosphere surrounding them. All these factors must be taken into account, and whereas in heavy constructional work it is possible to calculate almost precisely the moments of compression, tension and shear to which the wood members will be subjected, unfortunately this is not possible with furniture except under controlled conditions, for although it is composed of upright piers or stanchions, bearers, cantilevers and distance-pieces as in any fabricated structure, the wood sections themselves are too delicate, the woods are chosen for beauty rather than strength, the

132 Basic cuts in jointing

SQUARE CUT

ANGLE CUT

COMPOUND CUT

HALVING

NOTCH

HALVING

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variety used is considerable, and the amount of use to which the piece of furniture will be put can only be broadly assessed. The cabinetmaker has, therefore, very little scientific data to help him, and he must rely almost entirely on tradition, instinct and as much practical experience as he can muster.

Methods of joining wood together can be classified under four broad headings:

1 Butted joints, either edge to edge, side to side and with or without additional reinforcement

2 Interlocking joints where one piece of wood is cut or shaped to fit a corresponding socket in the other piece

3 Mechanical joints which permit controlled movement

4 Knock-down metal or plastic fittings which secure the various wood sections together to form rigid structures.

These last fittings are described under the section devoted to metalwork, while the remaining headings tend to overlap each other, and it is usually easier to group the joints somewhat arbitrarily under their separate types or classes, i.e. edge joints, mortise and tenon joints, dovetails, mitres, housings, etc., and this is the procedure adopted in the following chapters. The basic cuts on which all jointing methods are founded are illustrated in 132.

SOCKET

TRENCH

HOUSING

GROOVE (1)

SOCKET

HOUSING

GROOVE (1)

GROOVE (2)

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