Several different forms of halving joint are used which are easy to cut and usually regarded as first exercises for students, although they have practical applications in skeleton grounds, frameworks, etc. In particular, the cross halving (140:1) gives a stronger connection than either tenons or dowels. Where the two pieces to be joined are of equal thickness, both halves or laps should be equal, the separate pieces clearly marked on the face and leading edge, and all gauging done from these, using the same gauge setting throughout so that the amount left in one piece (A) will equal the amount taken out of the other piece.
In working, the pieces should be positioned, marked in pencil either side, the cutting-lines squared across with a knife and the depths of the laps gauged in as described before. The shoulders are then sawn in on the waste, the waste chiselled away (140:2) from either side and finished off with a metal shoulder-plane. Edge cross halvings, i.e. halvings in the depth, are liable to fracture along the grain under any sudden impact, and an improved version is shown in 141:1 which prevents any side give, although some strength is sacrificed. "L'or corner halvings (140:3) can be cut entirely with the small tenon-saw and, if accurate, can be assembled without further treatment as the slight ribbing of a fine saw will give a key for the glue. Figure 140:4 shows an oblique halving with the required angle set out with the adjustable bevel, and in 140:3, 4 both pieces can be left slightly full in the length and flushed off afterwards.
T halvings are constructed in the same manner as cross halvings, etc., and can be straight, or single dovetail taper (140:5) and double taper (140:6) to withstand a direct pull. The dovetail rake is marked out as described in Chapter 19, Dovetailing, with the slope set in a fraction from the top corner (140:5A) to give a seating for the saw. Figure 140:7 shows an oblique single dovetail taper housing often used in gallows brackets for shelving. Any pull in the direction of the arrows is protected by the shoulder X. A stopped version of the double taper used in connecting rails in table and carcass stands is shown at 140:6A.
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