Grooved and moulded frameworks

Grooved frameworks present no special features. The width of the rail tenons will be less the depth of the groove and also of the haunch, which is essential to fill the groove in the stile,

222 Mullet worked afterwards. A typical example with raised panels is shown in 226:1. In rebated/ rabbeted frameworks with stuck moulding, i.e. mouldings worked in the solid and not glued on as separate pieces, the rebate is worked as before, followed by the moulding which must be to the same depth, while the cutting away of the

Mitred Stuck Moulding

222 Mullet

Dowelling Mitred Frame

moulding on the stile and the mitre junction on the rail is left to last. The mitre cuts are made with a brass or wood mitre template as in 224. (See also Mortise and tenon joints, Chapter 17.)

Dowelled constructions can be used for all framed doors in lieu of mortises and tenons, and adequate strength will be attained if the seating of the dowel-pegs is not less than 1 1/4 in (32 mm) either side of the joint.


Vertical divisions between the rails are known as muntins (vertical sash-bars in windows which fulfil the same function are known as mullions). Their object when fitted is to stiffen up the panel area by dividing it into smaller sections. and also to increase the overall rigidity of the framing, but they are often used purely for visual effect. As they are distance-pieces— keeping the rails apart rather than pulling them together—they can be stub tenoned and glued into the grooves of the rails with a fine pin through the back of the rail to keep them in position, or if the frame is moulded and rebated/ rabbeted, cut in and mitred on the face. Muntins in heavy frameworks may require tenoning in as for the rails, but the tenons should be kept as short as possible, for there is little point in weakening the rails with deep mortises. It is customary to make the width of the muntins the same as, or slightly more than, the width of the rails, but if they are shaped the width should allow for the double moulding and should show the same amount of flat (this also applies to intermediate rails). Examples of muntins occur in framed carcass backs, drawer bottoms and panelling, etc.

Framed bow doors

Framed-up bow doors, either dowelled or tenoned together, in which the panels are grooved into the stiles and rails and assembled within the framework at the time of gluing up, present no difficulty. But where loose panels of either wood or glass enter from the back and are secured with loose beads, the rebates/rabbets in the stiles must not be radial to the curve, but parallel to the outer edge of the stile, or the panel will not enter (225:1, 2). In cramping/


90 \



225 Bow doors: laying out and cramping/clamping clamping up these doors sash-cramps across the back of the box (225:3A-B) will pull the joints open on the face, therefore the cramping pull must follow the arc, and a sturdy block should be laid across the face for the cramps to pull on (225:3). If there is any tendency for the face cramps to flatten the bow then a cramp across the back will correct the distortion.


The bottom edge should be levelled first and held in the carcass opening, checking that the hinging stile is square with the carcass side, and correcting if necessary. The other stile is then tried and planed to the opening, and lastly the top of the frame is levelled to fit the opening, with a final shaving from both top and right stile to give the necessary clearance.

Furniture Framework




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