Caul veneering hide glues

In this method the veneers are cut square, taped together and laid as a single sheet without preliminary dampening. This eliminates stretching, and the method is always used for laying thick saw-cut veneers, complicated patterns and marquetry-work where any swelling of the individual pieces would inevitably ruin the design. The groundwork/ substrate is glued and allowed to cool off, the veneer assembly laid on the guide-lines and held in the correct position with staples or fine veneer pins tapped in and pinched off level. It is then covered with a heated caul of softwood or thick zinc sheet with an interleaving of newspaper to prevent the caul sticking, and pressure is applied with cross-bearers and cramps/clamps (280:6). The bearers should be fractionally rounded in the length to spread the pressure from the centre outwards, and the cramps tightened in the order shown (280:7). Softening, composed of several thicknesses of newspaper, thick felt or rubber sheeting can be used to even out any irregularities, but they must be warmed throughout or the glue will not flow. Modern veneering practice follows the same principles, but cold-setting resin adhesives have eliminated the necessity for heated cauls, although they can be used for great acceleration of the setting time.

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