Various treatments are shown in 293:3-6 with (3) against an inlaid boxwood or ebony line, (4, 5) shaped bandings and (6) a shaped panel. In all handwork the central panel is laid first, trimmed back with a cutting-gauge or against a template, the inlaid line or banding fitted, glued and held in position with either cramping/ clamping blocks or veneer pins driven in
alongside, and the crossband then cut, fitted and laid. If the crossband is fairly narrow the separate pieces cut from the veneer sheet can be rubbed glued in position and then taped, or cellulose tape can be used with resin glues as it has a certain degree of elasticity and can be stretched tight to give sufficient pressure (289). Press-work will either call for dry fitting of the whole surface securely taped together and laid in one operation, or two or more pressings of central veneer, inlay banding and cross-banding. A method often adopted by the writer for this type of work was to press the centre first, trim back, dry fit both banding and crossbanding with cellulose tape, leaving the straight joints untaped, and then fold back the bandings with the tapes acting as hinges, glue the groundwork/substrate, tape the straight joints and press. This method is, of course, not possible with curved bandings, and the cellulose tape cannot be used with animal glues as it will not stick to wet surfaces. If the bandings are thicker than the central veneers and the panel is pressed between cauls or cover boards, softening material (newspaper, felt, rubber sheeting, etc.) will have to be used to accommodate the differences, but rubber bag (vacuum) presses will automatically do this.
Crossbandings were first used as safe edges for veneered work, for long-grain veneer has a tendency to lift or splinter out at the edges if laid with animal glues. Resin glues seal the edges effectively and require no crossbands, but the method is still used in reproduction furniture and as a form of surface decoration.
Crossbanding (counter veneering)
Both terms are synonymous and refer to a crossband underlay laid at right angles to the grain direct of the groundwork/substrate (287:9A), and then veneered over with a face veneer with the grain direction again recrossed. Thus in unsupported work two balancing veneers on the underside of the groundwork will be necessary to counteract the pull of the crossband and face veneer, and the assembly will be in effect a five-ply construction counting the panel as one ply. The process is useful for groundworks built up in segments (287:10) or surface joints which might shadow or telegraph through a single face veneer, and for the coarser grades of particle board. If solid wood is counter veneered, which was often done in richly veneered traditional furniture, the core panel must be a mild amenable wood, thoroughly seasoned and bone-dry, or shrinkage of the core will buckle or stress the veneers.
Yorkite crossbanding veneer
A recent development is the use of a manufactured pure wood cellulose fibre sheet in lieu of a natural wood veneer, produced by the NVF
Company of Wilmington, Delaware, and marketed in the United Kingdom under the brand name of Yorkite. This material resembles a very stiff brown paper (it can also be obtained in white for pale woods), and as it is a tough, dense, resin-free sheet of uniform thickness and obtainable in continuous rolls up to 54 in (1.371 m) wide, it offers definite advantages. It is particularly useful as an underlay for spiteful curls and burrs which otherwise have a tendency to crack and craze over a period of time, and as a preventative against the telegraphing through of coarse chip particle boards, etc. Additionally the grain direction of the face veneers can be in any direction irrespective of the groundwork/ substrate. A range of thicknesses is available, of which 1/64 in (.39 mm) is the most popular.
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