Properties Of Common Woods

The following list gives descriptions of some of the more widely known woods suitable for furniture-making. In each case, colour, texture, figure, working properties and behaviour can only be an approximation or general average, for individual trees within each species may differ very considerably. There will be marked differences between trees of the same species and accorded the same commercial gradings grown some 2000 miles apart, but there can also be an appreciable difference between trees...

Circular Table Saws

As a rough approximation it is usual to take one-third of the diameter of a circular saw as its effective cut, therefore a 15 in (381 mm) saw giving a cut of about 5 in (127 mm) would be about the minimum for general work. However, many large concerns do not use timber thicker than 11 2 in (38 mm) building up for larger dimensions, and this greatly simplifies their stocks, while large-diameter saws are no 99 12 in (304 mm) sliding-table panel-saw (dimension saw) 100 Startrite 9 in (228 mm) tilt...

Other Edge Tools Chisels

Steel Furniture Making Tools

It is hardly necessary to have complete sets of mortise-, firmer- and bevelled edged chisels for furniture-making, as the bevelled-edged will do everything necessary. Nor are complete sets of any one type essential, for there will always be three or four favourites to which the hand automatically turns. A first selection could be 1 8 in (3 mm), 1 4 in (6 mm), 3 8 in (9 mm), 1 2 in (12.5 mm) and 4 in (19 mm) bevelled edge (61 lA) with the addition of a 1 16 in (1.5 mm) firmer type (61 lB) and...

Hand tools

The basic tools of woodwork and the elementary processes of sawing, chiselling and smoothing wood are widely known, and detailed repetition is hardly necessary. What is of concern here is the specialized application of these basic techniques to the fabrication of project components, usually of small dimension, which will eventually become pieces of furniture. Therefore, although the tools employed and the methods of manipulating them are in principle the same as for any woodworking trade, the...

Cast and moulded structures Thermosetting plastics

Special casting or compression moulding resins PF, UF, MF and epoxy resins, etc. are used. In the most simple technique a cold cure resin mix resin syrup and catalyst is extended with appropriate fillers and colorants and cast in metal, silicone or hot melt rubber or plaster moulds without heat. In a more sophisticated technique the resinous solution is neutralized with a suitable organic acid, dehydrated under vacuum, and poured into lead moulds which are then oven treated. A third technique...

Bending methods

Wood Bending Steam Drawing

Immediately the wood is soft enough, i.e. uniformly heated throughout, it is taken from the steam chest and bent by hand, or by mechanical means if of heavy section, round a suitable former or form. A rough and ready method is to use sturdy pegs driven into a board, but this is inclined to bruise the wood, the bend may not flow easily between the pegs and the ends are inclined to split as they dry. A more sophisticated method is shown in 316 5 in which an 18 swg spring steel strap, slightly...

Frame and panel or frame and thin skin construction

Marshall Cabinet Construction

Much of this method of construction is a legacy of the utility furniture of the 1940s and early 1950s, when wood was at a premium and components were whittled down to a bare minimum. The extremely thin veneered plywood skins and panels were designed to give the appearance of solid wood construction and a traditional feel. This method of construction, 177 Basic construction showing joints 1. Housed with economy of material as its main aim, dadoed joint 2 amp 3. Tongue and lap 4. Mitre and became...

Pembroke tables

Pembroke Table Backflap Hinge

Figure 378 is an isometric sketch of a Pembroke table with fall flaps on the long sides, the support brackets either one long one or two short ones according to the size of the flap knuckle or finger jointed as described. One or two end drawers were provided in old examples, and if only one long drawer was fitted then the other end was treated as a dummy drawer front complete with ring or knob handle. The flaps were either square edge on butt-type hinges, or with table hinges and rule joints as...

Surfaces Of Double Curvature

Parallel Line Development Tank Gore

Surfaces of double curvature domes, etc. cannot be developed with complete accuracy, nevertheless the method illustrated in 347 is sufficiently accurate for most practical purposes. Assuming that a hemisphere has to be developed to provide the exact shapes of the constructional ribs and of the covering veneers, first draw the elevation and divide horizontally into any number of zones A, B, C, D, E, F, etc. The outer circumference of the dome is then drawn on plan, and the zones in elevation...

Cabriole legs

Perhaps no single feature in furniture has been so widely used as the cabriole leg cabrioler 'to bound or leap like a goat' . Present-day application is in reproduction furniture only, but the methods of working are applicable to other shapes. Figure 197 shows the sequence of operations. The basic shape in profile is drawn on squared paper and a template prepared from hardboard or thick cardboard. The wings of brackets C are not cut out of the solid leg but are applied after. If the leg has a...

Types of bits

Snail Horn Countersink Bit

Bits are probably the most abused of all woodworking tools, for too often the wrong type is chosen, or the bit is incorrectly or over sharpened. The general run of bits are supplied with either square taper shanks 69 1 for use in the armbrace, or parallel round shanks 69 14 for hand-drills. A few types are also available with parallel shanks turned down to 1 4 in 6 mm diameter 69 13 for use in the standard drill-gun, and with Morse taper shanks for lathe heads or specialized drilling-machines....

Hugh Scriven Furniture

Table without flaps, 385 2 the sectional elevation and 385 3 an isometric projection of the overall appearance. Figure 385 4 is the usual table with end flaps supported by swing knuckle-jointed brackets as in Pembroke tables, etc., and 385 5 an under plan showing the flap in the raised position. Constructional details are given in 386 with 386 1 the carcass framing, 386 2 leg details from which it will be seen that the side rail is bridled over the upright or standard, with the outer side of...

Grooved and moulded frameworks

Dowelling Mitred Frame

Grooved frameworks present no special features. The width of the rail tenons will be less the depth of the groove and also of the haunch, which is essential to fill the groove in the stile, worked afterwards. A typical example with raised panels is shown in 226 1. In rebated rabbeted frameworks with stuck moulding, i.e. mouldings worked in the solid and not glued on as separate pieces, the rebate is worked as before, followed by the moulding which must be to the same depth, while the cutting...

Drawer rails runners kickers and guides

Chest Drawers Rails And Kickers

A typical carcass framing for a chest is shown in 243 1, with A the top bearer rails dovetailed into the sides, B the lower drawer rail twin stub tenoned in, C the central division, D drawer runners, and E kickers, whose function it is to prevent the drawer sides kicking up as the drawer is withdrawn. In solid work the drawer runners 3D are stub tenoned and glued into grooves in the front rail and housed to the sides, but the housing dadoes must not be glued, and the runners are secured by open...

Border crossbandings

Crossbanding Table Edge

Various treatments are shown in 293 3-6 with 3 against an inlaid boxwood or ebony line, 4, 5 shaped bandings and 6 a shaped panel. In all handwork the central panel is laid first, trimmed back with a cutting-gauge or against a template, the inlaid line or banding fitted, glued and held in position with either cramping clamping blocks or veneer pins driven in alongside, and the crossband then cut, fitted and laid. If the crossband is fairly narrow the separate pieces cut from the veneer sheet...

Carcass dovetails

Where a side rail is grooved or tenoned into a leg or post as in a framed-up carcass, the shoulders of the two dovetails must be offset moreover in tenoned work the tenon and haunches must be set down by an amount at least equal to the depth of the larger dovetail. Figure 159 1 shows a typical assembly with front rail dovetailed into post and side rail. The side rail and post are assembled first and flushed off, the thickness of the front rail gauged in the post and pencilled in on the side...

Pullover Cross Cut Saws Radial Arm Saws

A heavy duty radial or swing saw mounted on a long wooden table is a regular item of equipment in most joinery workshops for the rapid crosscutting of squared up boards and timbers. It is less common in cabinet-making shops simply because waney edge boards are more commonly used. Many shops do have a lighter version, the radial arm saw, which has been particularly developed for the home craftsman and has a versatility that enables many processes from ripping to drilling to be accomplished on...

Knockup KU and knockdown KD fittings

Knockdown Fitting Part

Both are mechanical means of assembly employing a variety of metal or nylon fittings which replace standard jointing procedures. Knock-up fittings are those designed for the speedy erection of structures providing permanent fixtures which will not be dismantled knock-down fittings speed erection plus the ability to dismantle, i.e. knock down, at any time and for any number of times. In 'theory, at least, manufacturers can produce with these fittings standardized components which can be stored...

Double bevel dovetail joints

Double Dovetail Joint

These joints are sometimes used for bevel-sided hoppers, knife-boxes, etc., and although rarely used are worth describing for the sake or the principles involved in setting or laying out bevelled work. A full-size drawing is necessary from which the true length A and the true width B can be obtained 158 , also the edge bevel in the thickness of each piece shown by the arrowed line c . All the bevels are marked and worked holding the bevel at right angles to the edges of the sloping ends and not...

Movement And Shrinkage

Tortrix Viridana Effects Wood

Sound jointing techniques upon which the stiffness, appearance and general usefulness of furniture depend must take into account the natural movement of wood, and its propensity to shrink, swell and warp under fluctuating 12 Drying-oven for testing moisture content 12 Drying-oven for testing moisture content atmospheric conditions. It is, therefore, vitally important that the woodworker should understand exactly what kind of structural material it is which ceaselessly moves in sympathy with its...

Solid board carcass construction

This method of carcass construction is rarely undertaken by large manufacturers, and, when it is, the wood is usually strip laminated for stability and uniformity of colour and grain in production. Figure 185, for example, shows a solid wood top made of 18 in 45 cm sections glued together with a resin adhesive to form an 18 in 45 cm board. Ercol of High Wycombe 182 Framed carcasses using thin sheet material 182 Framed carcasses using thin sheet material are the masters of this form of...

Secret double lap dovetails

Table Socket Box Drawing

These are used where open dovetails would be unsightly, but as one lap must show end grain the jointing method could be entirely hidden with secret mitre dovetails, which are not much more trouble to cut. The double lap dovetail does, however, have certain applications, and 155 1 shows two forms B side lap and C top lap, according to the use. In working the joint the projecting lap piece is rebated rabbeted out A to the depth of the secret lap the laps are usually made square in section . The...

Seasoning And Moisture Content

The growing tree which is full of sap can contain anything from 50 per cent free water up to 200 per cent in certain swamp-grown softwoods. A single cubic foot 0.02832 m3 of green oak, for instance, can contain up to 28 pt 16 1 of water which must be reduced to at least 4 pt 2.27 1 before the timber is fit for use. The object of seasoning is, therefore, to accelerate the evaporation of this surplus moisture, rendering the wood lighter, harder, stronger, less susceptible to discoloration and...

Chair joints

John Makepeace Ebony And Nickel

Top back rail joints are illustrated in 466. Figure 466 1 is a tenon on the rail, 466 2 shows a tenon on the post, and 466 5 a dovetail bridle joint. Where the wood sections are very slim 466 6 the joint can be reinforced by forming a step to support the back thrust and increase the gluing area. Figure 466 3 shows a shaped post and top rail mortised and tenoned together and rounded after assembly. In 466 4 the top dowel has no real holding power but does prevent the top twisting out of line,...

Diseases And Pests

Timber Dote Disease

Wood which is deeply buried in the ground or completely submerged in water does not decay, as witness the highly prized black bog oak which has been buried for centuries under layers of wet peat, and the use of timber baulks for underwater piles and breakwaters. However, where there is free oxygen, living fungi will attack the wood, provided there is moisture present and although most of these fungi are relatively harmless, causing little more than local staining, two main types of rot actively...

Grading and classification of plywood

Grading Classification

Clear distinction must be drawn between the grading of ply, which is concerned only with the quality of the face veneers, and the classification into groups or types, which is concerned with the nature of the bonding adhesive and the durability of the actual wood used. Hitherto plywoods were loosely grouped into interior and exterior qualities, but these terms are fairly meaningless. Admittedly, 25 Manufactured boards 1 3 ply construction 2 5 ply construction 3 Multi-ply construction 4...

Perspective drawing

True Height Line Perspective

Perspective drawings are used to illustrate the appearance of the object so that it is completely understandable to a third person. Actual measurements are not taken from such drawings, as they are only concerned with the mechanics of vision in which receding lines appear to converge and diminish. Various methods are used, many of which are highly technical and require special study, but 334 shows a simple compromise which should be sufficient for most practical purposes. Figure 334 2 shows the...

Pedestal table or pillar legs

Pillar Legs Table

A typical mahogany Chippendale pillar or tripod leg is shown in 201 1 201 2 shows a Sheraton pillar table leg and 201 3 an early nineteenth-century tripod table leg with brass lion foot castor. All these legs were used in sets of either three or four according to the heaviness and type of table. Methods of attaching shaped legs to cylindrical pillars or shafts are illustrated in 202. Figure 202 1 is the stopped slot dovetail method with either taper or straight dovetail and shoulders scribed to...