Peoria illinois

foreword

THIS book is presented to the public to assist those who are interested in the design and construction of simple furniture. It is planned, also, to be of assistance to instructors and students as a partial text, but more particularly as a class reference book.

Man;- of the problems have been worked by eighth grade pupils. It is believed that a'l are capable of solution bj the average high school pupil after He has had one year's experience in bench woodwork.

The particular value of the revised over former editions of "Problems in Furniture Making" is ir. the rewr'tten and enlarged printed portion of the book together with what is believed to be a better selection of problems, both new and old.

While many of these problems are new, some are familiar because oi their long use as school projects. These are included, with modifications, as it is difficult to replace them with better ones.

The author is indebted to his many friends who have offered helpful suggestions in the design and selection of prublems. Those marked "F. D. C." are, in many cases, original only in the sense that the general proportions and dimensions are of the author's selection.

The users of this book will be materially assisted in interpreting »he pioblems by the perspective drawings which were made by Edwin V. Lawrence, Pittsburg, Pa.

DESIGN

Since writing the chapter on ' Design" for the first issue of "Problems in Furniture Making," the author has given considerable additional attention to this subject. The chapter on '•Form and Proportion" in "Problems in Wood-Turning" was tLe result of sub sequent study and experience. While all the principles involved therein are not applicable to furniture design, it will be of great help if the user of this book will familiarize himself with them. At the close of this present chapter a chronological summary of steps taken in the design of a piece of furniture is given. The formal arrangement of these steps is the result, also, of the work of recent years.

In order that intelligent modifications of the completed designs herein presented may he made, and that initiative on the part of the pupil may be secured in the making of new designs, the fullowing suggestions on design are given-

  1. General lines a>id proportions. The general character of tne lines will be largely dependent upon the lines in the pieces of furniture with which the one you are designing is to be associated; there should be a general harmony of line, a re echo of line, in the room as well as in the single piece of furniture. The general proportions will be determined by the space your piece of furniture is to fill and its use. In case it has no particular place in the ho ne or there is not a decided need for it, a design is not called for. It is believed that much of the furniture of either poor or mediocre design is the result of a misdirected effort due to a misconceived or purely mercenary deraard.
  2. Construction. The shape of the piece of furniture will generally determine its construction. One will hardly make a mistake in the selection of joints to be used but there are many forms of some of the principle joints, such as the tenon-and-mortise joint, from which to seltct Here, again, one must be governed by that fundamental lav» of design, viz. there must be harmony. If the general design is a severe one, then the protruding form of joint will be appropriate, such as, for example, the open or pinned tenon Eind-mortise joint instead of the closed one or the screwed construction instead of the nailed butt-joint, etc.

Construction is no less an important factor in the ultimate heauty of a piece of furniture than is ;ts design. The beat-designed article may be ruined by poor construction. Makeshifts such as glued-on parts tn represent protruding tenons and pins are deprecated. The butt joint fastened by means of screws or lag bolts may be an appropriate form of construction ant! serve as a means of decoration, but it should not be used as a general substitute for the tenon-and-mortise. It is a false interpretation of honest construction and is one of the many things in manual training which helps to swell the number ot those who condemn the subject for its insufficiency and impractical methods.

3. Decorative features Simple carving, uphol stering or textile or leather paneling is often the thing needed to give a piece completeness in appearance but, ordinarily, g^od lines, good proportions and good finish are quite sufficient to fulfil all esthetic requirements. The simple modeling of the top or bottom of a post and the introduction of broken or curved lines in some of the rails and stiles is sufficient decoration.

In addition to these three considerations, it is desired to call attention to two others dependent upon one or all of these three:

fa) There will constantly arise as one works over a design the question of widths and lengths of certain parts. Some of these will be definite because of the use to which the piece of furniture will be put, but many will be indefinite. These indefinite dimensions may be determined with some degree of accuracy if one will carefully cons:der the three following laws gov erning arrangement.

  • 1) Uniform spacing of similar parts is usually unsatisfactory.
  • 2) Wide masses and narrow openings should be made near the bottom of a piece instead of near the top to give: the feeling of stability.
  • 3) The center of weight in a design should be directly below the center of gravity.
  • b) The satisfactory tilling of space areas is often difficult. This is largely a problem in decoration, although it may be one in construction when the strength of the piece of furniture is an important factor in the design. As an aid toward a satisfactory airange-ment of parts in a given area the designer shouid become familiar with the term "measure" and the principles in design effecting it. viz., rhythm, balance and harmony, as set forth in E. A. Batchelder's book, 'The Principles of Design."

The requirements of the individual problem must always serve as the basis for conclusions, but the three laws governing arrangement given above and the prin ciple of re-echo or harmony of line will prove helpful guides.

For a more detailed consideration of the princi pies of design in connection with problems in furniture construction, reference is here made to an article by the author on "Furniture Design" in the April. iqo6, number of the Manual Training Magazine; also to a series of articles by Prof. Chas. R. Richards on.f^'A College Course in Constructive Design," Manual Training Magazine. Vol. IX, Nos. 2 and 3. Attention is called also to the chapter on "Form and Proportion" in "Problems in Wood-Turning" by the author. Many of the prin ciples set forth ir. this chapter, especially those referring to mass divisions and combinations are applicable in the design of furniture.

Steps to Take (n Designing a Piece of Furniture.

  1. In response to a need for a piece of furniture consider carefully its detailed use.
  2. Determine the material to be used in construction. In general, clcse-grained and fine-textured woods are most suitable for furniture which has a limited use such as parlor and bedroom pieces. The coarser-grained woods have their principle use in living and dining room furniture.

Again the close grained and hard woods are best suited to pieces of furniture having many curved lines formed cither by modeling or burning. T he coarser-grained woods should be used principally in furniture of severe design.

  1. Determine, if possible, the: p1ace the: piece of furniture will occupy in a room. This will fix some of the definite dimensions and will enable one to make a wise selection of the kind of lines to be used that the piece may be harmoniously associated with it? companion pieces.
  2. "Block in" the design so as to make the piece of furniture harmonize with the general "make up" of the room. Secure harmony by having a re-echo of line.
  3. Consider now the indefinite or detailed dimensions to make all parts of the piece members of one family. This will result in unity. All details such as the modeling of top and bottom rails, the use of curves in stiles and legs, the modeling of ieet and top of legs or posts, and the making of metal fittings, etc., will affect this element— an all important one—in the design.
  4. Make good construction and proportion serve as an important factor in the decoration of the piece.
  5. Before considering the design complete, give careful attention to the tfiree fundamental elements of design: viz.: rhythm, balance and harmony. If the several parts are so arranged and formed that there is movement as the eye nasses from one part to another in the design, then rhythm has been secured.

If, by having the whole arranged symmetrically with respect to an axis or by a judicious arrangement of part?, the whole seems to stand or hang truly, there is balance.

If the design as a whole does not ''jar" upon one; if all parts seem to belong tugether, then there is harmony. The design is a unit.

Correlation In Design.

It is believed that no better line of work can be introduced in conjunction with woodwork than that commorJy cal'ed "Decorative Metal." Many woodwork constructions are enriched by the addition of some escutcheon—a strap, a hinge, a pull or a corner plate. The making of these metal fittings may be considered a legitimate part of a course of study in woodwork especially one in whicn emphasis is laid upon the design and construction of furniture. It is believed there is no line of work which otters a greater opportunity tor the teaching of the principles of design and tor their application than this. Theie is, too, not only an opportunity but a demand for close and natural correlation between furniture making and its associate, decorative metalwork.

The reader who would take advantage of the above suggestion to embellish his course in woodwork and to avoid the deadening influence of a long continued course of study in it (many of them now run from the fifth grade thrcugh the second or even the fourth year of high school) will do well to familiarize himself with ' Copper Work" by Augustus Rose, and a series of articles by Arthur F. Payne on, ' Metalwork with Inex • pensive Equipment for the Grammar and High Schools," Manual Training Magazine, Nos. 4 and 5, Vol. XI, and Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, Vol. XII, and Nos. 2 and 4,

CONSTR

It is taken for granted that the users of this book have had some instruction in the use of tools. It is hoped that classes ir. manual training' will undertake to construct but few of the projects herein suggested until they have had at least the equivalent of the average bench woodwork of one school year. It is not proposed, therefore, in this chapter, to dictate in detail any method of using tools, but to give in the few iollow-ing pages some specific suggestions for the cutting of certain joints and the method of working up stock for certain classes of work, in the hope that they may be helprul.

It is believed that the working drawings in this book show the method of construction, as a rule. It is supposed that the best method of construction is desired in any piece of furniture and the author has given whit he believes to bj the best appropriate method in each individual case. It will be found that the butt-joint is used in all pieces where las screws, blue-headed screws or wooden pins are called for. Such pieces should be measured and squared for length by holding them together by means of a clamp duriiig this process. The fact that the butt-joint is herein mentioned does no+ mean that it is recommended. It is supposed that in planing stock the workman will estab-

UCTION

liiih a joint edge and face edge from which all squaring will be done.

Assuming that one year of bench woodwork has been done by most pupils who will undertake any but the simpler problems in this book it is to be supposed that woodworking machine ry will be used 10 get out stock. Except for enough hand planing to take off machine marks, the planer and the circular saw may be used to prepare most pieces of a project ready to be put together. This refers both to cutting to length, width and thickness and to cutting joints. The following sugeestions are given, therefore, for the order of work on machines.

Steps to be Tanen on Machines.

  1. Select boards from the stock pile so that their length and width will permit of the greatest economy in the cutting of lumber.
  2. With a hand crosscut-saw, cut boards to approximate lengths. (It is assumed that a bill of stock will be made out before this is done.)
  3. On a surface planer, or better on an edger, dress one side and one edge of each piece for face and joint edge.

4 With joint edge against rip-saw guide, saw lumber to approximate widths. Of course all boards of a certain width will be ripped before the guide is reset.

5. With face side against the bed of a circular planer, plane all stock to approximate thickness. All lumber of similar thickness will be planed before resetting the planer.

All stocK should now be taken to the bench and dressed to the finished dimensions with har.d planes. Ends 01 boards, except where they will show in the finished project, need not be finished by hand.

The Cabinet-Maker's Method of Getting Out Stock.

Where a number of pieces of wood are gotten out tor one piece of furniture it is wise to be very systematic in the method of laying out and sawing up these pieces. The following method is suggested as good: From a complete working drawing of the piece of furniture to be made, make an itemized list of all pieces of wood, putting those together in the list that have equal widths and lengths, and making note of ditferent thicknesses if there are ar.y.

The cabinet-maker's rrethod of working consists in doing all similar operations on a!l pieces while tools and machines are set. If this happens to be the cutting of tenons or the boring of mortises, be careful to complete this work on all pieces before beginning some other operation, just what should be done first and what second, and so on, it is difficult to say, but it is always safe to complete all ripping and crosscutting in getting stuck to tl^ roughing dimensions before any hand dressing is done. It is likewise well to have all pieces dressed and finished to the dimensions given on the drawing before any joints are laid out and cut.

One further point to note in the economy of labor is to keep pieces which are to be glued together to form doors, sides of cabinets, etc., glued up and clamped as the work progresses so that when all tool work is done the several parts of the piece of furniture aie glued up and reidy for the final assembling.

A word about scraping and sandpapering may not be out of place here. The best suggestion one can give in this connection is to do this part of the work thoroughly. Whether each piece should be scraped and sandpapered before any gluing is done or not is an open question, Much time may often be saved by postponing most of this work until the piece of furniture is assembled.

The Tenon-and Murtise joint.

The JjT and-M" joint, as the tenon-and mortise joint is briefly designated, is the principal one used in furniture construction. The one ordinarily used is the closed T-and-M joint, or the one in which the tenon goes only part way into the mortised piece. Usually in furniture the tenon is held in place by glue, and if the joint is made well the glue will be sufficient to keep the joint tight for many ytars. It is true that in some factory furniture these joints often loosen in a short time but it is due to careless workmanship rather than to the kind of joint.

Layinq Out the Tenon -and-Mortise Joint

For the benefit of those who may not be familiar with the process of laying out the tenon and-mortise joint the following method is suggested. After all tne pieces are planed to the proper width and thickness and the face sides and joint edges marked, put together in vise, with joint edges up, the tenon pieces that are to be cut the same ltngth. From the center of one of these pieces (preferably the one nearest the workman) measure each way one-half the distance between the shoulders of tenons (it is supposed here that a tenon is to be cut on each end) and make a point vitb the end of a knife blade. With a try-square or carpenter's square and knife, square a line through these points across the joint fdg<s. Now take the pieces out of the vise and square around each end from the line already marked on joint edge, being careful to Lave the beam of the square always on either face side or joint edge. To measure thickness of tenon lay rule on joint edije of one board and mark points with end of knife blade for tenon thickness, lake the marking gage and set its stop so that the marker touches one of these points when the stop is firmly pressed against the face side. Before resetting gage, mark all pieces for this width. Now, set marking gagt for the other point, again having gage stop against face side, and proceed as before. If the workman has access to a power saw, all the work of cutting the tenons may be done on it, but it is believed that quite as accurate work may be done with hand saws. Any trimming maj he done with chisel and plane after sawing has been completed.

The mortise is laid cut and constructed by a sim'lar method when the mortise stock is thicker than the tenon stock. In laying out mortises for "flush" T-and-M joints, gaging the respective sides of the mortise should he done simultaneously with the gaging of corresponding sides of tenons.

A Second Mettiod ayjni. Out the Tenon-ana-

The importance of the tenon- and mortise joint in furniture construction is so great that a second standard method of laying it out and cutting it is here suggested. Proceed as in the first method to the point of measuring from the center of stock each way to tenon shoulder points. Instead of taking this step measure each way or.e-ha'.f the full length of stock including the length of tenons. As in the first method square across all pieces while they are fastened together in a vise or clamp.

Each piece may now be placed against a double-end crosscut saw guide ana by sawing to these squared lines and in the waste stock all pieces will be sawed to the same length. Now by using the single-end crosscut guide and the rip-guide together, and by having the rip-guide set away from the saw the lencth of the tenon and through the saw table the thickness of the tenon shoulder all tenons may be cut without laying out the tenon shoulder lines as in the first method. With a good saw and with accurately cut stock this method rather than the first one is to be preferred.

The mortise is laid out and cut as in the first method except that in "flush" construction as well as in ' off-set" construction mortise thicknesses will be ga^ed independent of the tenons. The cabinet-makers' method should be used, however A "mortise" gage may be used, also, thus saving the necessity of resetting a regular markirg gage to determine the position of the second surface of mortises.

The Panel-

In most cabinet work, to avoid winding, warjing, etc,, wide spaces are filled with a frame, the corners of which have a T-and-M joint. The center of this frame is a single board or a series of boaids separated one from the other by boards known as "stiles" and "rails." These are usually flush with the frame and on their panel edges have "rabbets" or grooves for the insertion of the panel edges. Three kinds of panels are used: (i) the panel flush with its frame on both sides, (2) the panel flush with its frame on one side and inset on the other, (3) the panel inset in its frame on both sides. The first is used where strength alone is desired, the second where strength and appearance are both necessary In this case the inset comes on the outside of the piece of furniture. The third also is used where appearance, as well as strength, is essential. If a power saw is used for cutting this joint, the face sides and joint edges should always be placed against the saw guides. The work of gaging may be omitted, although, for the beginner it is recommended.

FINISHES

The aim in finish r,g wood is two fold: (t) To preserve the wood: (2) to produce an agreeable surface, color and texture.

The eld method of filling and varnishing a piece of furniture is still practical, but since the advent of the so-called craft furniture there has been a desire to produce an even-toned color, and staining has seemed to be the most practical method of doing this. One can purchase on the market innumerable prepared stains of which there ar^ three general divisions, viz.: ■later, oil and spirit. In general it may be said that while a spirit stain penetrates the wood better than either of the first two mentioned it is often difficult to aprly. Oil stains do not offer this objection but Eire sometimes unsatisfactory because they rub off easiiy. They should, therefore, be covered with some preservative which is also a fixative. Usually, the firm manufacturing a stain also makes a finishing material to apply after the stain is used. If this is not the case, a very thin shellac will serve bcth to preserve the stain and to fix it. Wgter stains should also be covered with some gum preparation, but in no case, unless a high polish is desired, should this material be thick. It should be thin enough to penetrate the wood almost immediately after application.

It is impossible to give a list of all the good stains now manuiactured. Probably no two people would select the same ones for a recommended list. Consequently the names of the firms, familiar to the ar.thor, manufacturing stains good in quality both as to tone of color and durability are given rr.ther than a list of stains. In any case, whether one is to use a manufactured stain or one made in the schuol shop, the greatest care must be taken to remove all glue, and to scrape and sandpaper thoroughly betöre staining. Also, to experiment with the particular stain to be used on the exact kind of wood which was put into the project to be stained before the final work of staining begins is imperative if the best results are to be secured.

Chicago \Vo"d Finishing Co., Chicago, 111.

Chicago Varnish Co., Chicago, 111.

The Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co., Bridgeport, Conn.

The Sherwin Williams Co., Cleveland, Ohio.

It should be said that no pretense is made here to list all firms which manufacture stains satisfactory for manual training use.

The great objection to any of these prepared finishes is their expense. Eelow are given seiverai methods of finishing wood which some experimental and practical experience hps derionstrated to be good. In most cases they are comparatively inexpensive. Some of these are old but some are probably new. In giving them let it be understood that good results will be obtained only when the directions are explicitly followed; even then in some cases it may not be possible to get results that are uniform. The same stain on different pieces of the same variety of wood may give slightly different effects.

Oil Finish.

Perhaps one of the oldest methods of finishing wood and one used today for some work is to fi'l the grain w:fh two or thr<_- coats of boiling-Lot linseed oil, allowing about twenty-four hours to elapse between applying the coats. The oil serves as a preservative and at the same time, when rubbed often, it will give a dull finish. The surface oil evaporates soon, however, so thit one cannot rely upon oil alone to keep a polish. This method of finishing wood is especially good for porch and yard furniture. Care snould be taken not to put on enough oil at one time to allow a film to form on the surface of the wood when the oil dries.

Wax Finish,

The old method of finishing furniture by rubbing it with beeswax is still followed. During recent years it has become very popular. Prepared wax is fairly satisfactory but a wax may be made by cutting up beeswax at.d mixing it with about one-third its bulk of turpentine and heating the two together to the boiling point. This should he done in a double boiler, The preparation may be allowed to coo!, aiter which it shouid be rubbed on and then oiT With considerable pressure. A more satisfactory method is to apply the wax hot and rub with a soft cloth as it cools. To produce a fine lasting polish three or four coats sLould be applied, allov ing from one to four weeks between applications. A soft cloth should be used in dusting a piece of furniture finished by *his process. Better results may be obtained by allowing each coat of wax to harden during several hours before rubbing it.

Fuming.

A darkened color may be produced artificially on wood by placing it in a tight box and then setting in the box an open dish of concentrated ammonia. The woods most affected by the ammonia fumes are oak, principally quartered oak, ana chestnut. Tht depth of color increases with the time of exposure. A preparation known as "Fumine," manufactured by Walter

K. Schmidt i Co., of Grand Rapids, Mich., will deepen the color if applied on the wood before it is placed in the fuming box. Tannic acid may be used in place of Fumine by dissolving the flakes in alcohol and applying the liquid with a brush. Fumed work should be finished by the wax finish process. The fuming should be done after the piece is sandpapered ready for finishing.

Filling and Varnishing.

For many years one of the most popular methods of finishing furniture was that of filling the grain of the wood with some paste, which might be colored to suit the taste, and which would harden, and then covering the entire piece with some fixative preparation such as varnish or shellac. There is probably no method of finishing furniture today that preserves the wood better than this one. After the article to be finished has been thoroughly scraped and sandpapered apply some good paste filler, thinned to the consistency of thick cream, with boiled linseed oil and turpentine. Put it on with a brush or piece of cloth and allow it to stand about five minutes until it begins to dry. When this drying begins, rub the filler off with a piece of tjurlap or a handful of shavings. Rub across the grain. After ten or twelve hours apply a coat of hard oil or varnish with a soft brush and let this thoroughly harden. The time required for hardening depends upon two conditions : the character of the varnish and the temperature of the atmosphere. Usually not less than twenty-four hours should elapse between applications of the finishing material in a room kept free from dust and having a temperature of at least 72° F. Varnish should be applied with a high grade soft bristle or camel's-hair brush. The brush should be passed over the surface of stock by long uniform strokes and it should be kept well tilled. When hard, rub the varnish down with tine sandpaper to smooth the surface. Repeat the vat nishing and sandpapering process three or four times until a perfect surface is produced; then apply another coat of varnish thinned mure than the former ones and, when hard, rub down with pumice stone and rubbing oil. To give life to the finish continue rubbing with rotten stone and water, applied with a piece of burlap drawn over a piece of sheet cork, or with a piece of harness-maker's felt. A coat of wax put on after the rotten stone is used will add to the appearance of tht finish.

Staining, Filling ana Varnishing.

The filling and varnishing method of finishing furniture produces a striking grain w'th open-grained woods. If it is desired to fill the grain to produce a smooth surface and yet not show a strong grain, the wood should be stained before tht: filler is applied. a stain of almost any desired color may be obtained by mixing dry colors ground in oil with boiled linseed oil to make a paste and then thinning with turpentine. Stains made in this way are likely to cloud and obscure the grain of the wood. They should be applied in thin coats, two or three being jsed in preference to one heavy coat. The colors recommended are. Dron Elack, Lamp Black, Bnrned Umber, Raw Umber, Van dyke Brown, Yellow Ochre. Prussian Blue, Paris Green and Venetian Red.

A sta.ned, filled and varnished piece of furniture should be prepared as follows:

Order of procedure: Scrape. Sandpaper. Dust. Wet down with water. Let dry Sandpaper. Dust. Stain. Let di-y. Wipe with soft cloth. Fill. Let dry. Wipe with soft cloth. Varnish as described under, "Filling and Varnishing."

Anallne Dye Stains.

The analine dyes, dissolved in alcohol, usually make satisfactory stains, also. Some of them, however, will fade in time, Seal Brown has proven the most satisfactory in the author's experience. After the piece of furniture has been thoroughly scraped and sandpapered is should be covered with water to raise the gra 1 in order that the stain will not do this when it is Dut on. After the v ocia drys rub down with sar.dpaoer and apply stain with cloth. When the stain is dry the piece may be filled and varnished a= described under the head of "Filling and Varnishing." To this may be added a coat of wax, or the wax finish iray be used alone.

Log Wood Stain.

A rich purplish black will be produced on oak or chestnut by covering the wood with a solution of logwood prepared as follows: Boil logwood gum, as it is so'd by druggists, in water until a deep black liquid is obtained. About four or five pieces of the gum as large as a walnut, boiled in a gallon of water, will give about the right color. While the mixture is still boiling hot add about half a tumbler of washing soda and stir until it is dissolved. When the solution is cold apply with cloth until desired color is obtained. Finish with wax, shellac or varnish.

Japalac.

A very desirable black m;;y be obtained on almost any wood by thinning Dead Blrck Japalac with turpentine and applying as a stain, rubbing off rapidly as it is applied. This stain does not need to be covered with a preservative. Other colors of Japalac may be prepared for stains of corresponding color

Old Dutch Stain

This is not the prepared finish sold under the same name but a home made mixture which gives to oak the appearance of great age similar to the old pieces of furniture of German make so much admired. Mix two parts of drop black to one of lamp blsxk with tjrpentine until a liquid that will just How is obtained. Add to this enough burnt umber to kill the "dirty' black. A very little ot the umber will do this. Apply to oak or chestnut after wood has been wet with water and rubbtd down with sandpaper. Rub the stain in and oft evenly When dry, cover with a very thin coat of shellac to fix stain and finish with wax.

Bichromate of Potash Stain.

This method of finishing wood is spoken of a number of times in this book because it has been successfully handled by the author ar.d is an eisy stain to apply. It gives a brick-brown color and when rubbed with an oiled cloth will keep a dull lustre for a long time. Make a concentrated solution of powdered bichromate of potash using hut water. Soft water is preferred. Prepare wood (oak and chestnut take this stain better than most other woous) as before described and anply stain with cloth. Let the stained piece stand over night. The yellowish-brown crystalline surface which will be found in the morning will turn to a brick brown color when rubbed with linseed oil. No finish is necessary over this stain.

Asphaitum Varnish Stain.

A rich chocolate brown may be produced on almost any open-grained or light-co'.ored wood by thinring asphaltum varnish with turpentine and applying with a cloth, rubbing rapidly to avoid sticking, if the asphal-tum varnish is made very thin it may De applied with a brush and allowed to harden as any varnish will. Unless the varnish is put on rather thick a covering coat of shellac or finishing varnish should be added.

Acetate of Iron Stain.

A stain that is easily made and applied with very good results on butternut and chestnut is one which may be made by soaking iron filings in vinegar. The filings or chips should be from cast iron. Soak them in vinegar, stirring occasionaltj-, for a week. Apply in the same manner as other stains. Butternut stained with the acetate, of iron and rubbed with an oiled clnth will turn very dark—almost black. Chestnut will be made a soft yellowish brown. A wax covering will give life and durability to this stain. Chestnut, finished with this stain and afterward fumed, will turn a deeper brown with the characteristic velvet appearance that fuming always gives.

Iron Suipnate Slain.

To give a grey stain to oak, boil it in a solution of iron sulphate made by dissolving one ounce ot chemically pure sulphate of ircin crystals for each pound of wood in enough water to entirely cover the wood. Separate the strips of wood with pieces or glass and weight the wood down to insure its being kept under water,

About one dram of sulphuric acid should be added to every gallon of the solution to keep the iron in the form of a sulphate. When dry rub thoroughly with a dry cloth.

Silver Nit-ate Stain.

A weak solution of silver nitrate on chestnut which is atterwards fumed with ammonia will give a dark brown. Wax makes a good finish for this stain.

Dry Color Stains

After experimenting for a number of j'ears with wood finishes in manual training woodworking classes, the author has come to the conclusion that, aside from the few finishes herein described and some of the stains to be found on the market, one can get about as satisfactory results, as in any other way, by nixing the dry colors (obtainable at painter's supply houses) with boiled linseed oil and turpentine. A little experimenting will determine the colors and the quantity of each, to mix together to produce a desired shade Those wh;ch will be most used are listed under. "Staining, Filling and Varnishing." After the mixture of dry colors is made, add enough boiled linseed oil to make a paste and thin this with turpentine Apply stain with cloth and finish with varnish or shellac. Rub the fixative preparation dowr1 as described under, "Filling and Varnishing."

Other stains Lnd finishes might be suggested here, but it is the purpose of this chapter to make motion of those only which are known to be amrng the best. The reader is referred to the following articles and books for further mateiial on this subject. In giving this direction it may be weU to offer the following injunction :

To procure the most satisfactory results in the staining and finishing of woods, one must become a patient experimenter. No otain or finish should be used, no matter how highly recommended or with what success previously used, until n is tried upon samples of 'he same wood upon which it is proposed to place it. These should be selected and prepared for the stain wi^-h as much care as would be used in the process of finishing- any pieee of furniture.

References on Wood Finishes.

Chapter on Finishes in Noyes' "Handwork in Wood."

Article by C. S. Van Deusen, Manual Training Magazine, No. 2, Vol. VI.

Handbook published by Berry Bros, the varnish makers.

Handbook oublished by 3. C. Johnson Co., Racine,

Wis.

How To Sell Furniture

How To Sell Furniture

Types Of Furniture To Sell. There are many types of products you can sell. You just need to determine who your target market is and what specific item they want. Or you could sell a couple different ones in a package deal.

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