Furniture Craft Plans

Furniture Craft Plans

The FurnitureCraftPlans package is unlike anything that has ever been created. Inside this life-changing collection, you'll be empowered with more than 9,000 woodworking plans for your home furniture, wood crafts, and just about anything made of wood. The Easy To Use Bundle Of Over 9,000 Designer & Classic Woodworking Plans That Enable You To Make Amazing Wooden Furniture And Other Wood Craft Projects! You get over 9,000 plans to keep for life. Use them for inspiration or easily search through them when you have a new project you want to make. Covers all types of home furniture, small wood craft plans, and everything in between! If you can dream it, I've got the plan for it. Save thousands of dollars with our plans for high-end designer wooden furniture. Build them by following easy-to-follow directions. Contains some of the Exact plans for designer furniture projects! (large or small it's all covered here). Each project comes with detailed blueprints, schematics, step-by-step instructions, full color guides, as well as the complete materials lists! The plans are kept in an easily searchable database so there's no need to scroll through all 9,000 plans simply pull up the plan you are looking for with an easy search function. Your current skill level doesn't matter everything is laid out step-by-step in precise detail (it's virtually impossible to fail if you take the time to follow the instructions). Continue reading...

Furniture Craft Plans Summary


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Measured Drawings of Eighteenth Century American Furniture

Pancarte Png

MEASURED DRAWINGS OF EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AMERICAN FURNITURE Measured Drawings of Eighteenth Century American Furniture Ejner Handberg p. cm. Some Notes on Early American The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are generally regarded as the golden age of furniture making. As roads improved and faster ships were built, worldwide commerce expanded greatly, carrying both raw materials and finished products to the far corners of the earth. The vast majority of New England's inhabitants were from the British Isles and were greatly influenced by their motherland's customs and styles. Before the Revolutionary War, it was considered the highest fashion to have imported English furniture in the home. Those who could not afford it or would not put up with the long wait for English furnishings had it produced in America. It was only natural and necessary that urban craftsman copied the latest London styles and in turn the country cabinetmaker joiner copied the styles of the nearest cities. In...

Discover The Joy Of Furniture Making

Hundreds of articles on furniture design and construction, I know how to build furniture that's sound both structurally and aesthetically, and I have the confidence to tackle more complex pieces. I'd like to pass along what I've learned at Fine Woodworking in one inclusive magazine Building Furniture. This special collection of Fine Woodworking's best articles on furniture construction and anatomy comes from some of the country's foremost woodworking experts. Lessons learned here can be applied to a broad range of furniture types and styles from various periods. You'll learn how to build bookcases, tables, chairs, cabinets, chests of drawers, and beds in dozens of styles. You'll also get in-depth information on building doors and drawers. If you want to build stylish furniture that will last generations, dive in, explore, and enjoy the journey. Furniture maker Matthew Teague goes step-by-step

A cabinetmaker tackles twoboard construction

Mitered Through Dovetail

A custom cabinetmaker has to be ready to make pieces of furniture that the general marketplace doesn't provide. At the same time, a craftsman is better off doing work that he feels a sympathy for. I had the chance to satisfy both requirements recently when some customers complained that they couldn't find furniture roomy enough to store quilts and other bulky items. Quilting is a popular hobby and home-industry in this part of Kentucky, and even if the quilters themselves didn't need a storage cabinet, I was sure the quilt collectors would. Traditional Furniture Projects 61 Traditional Furniture Projects 63

Old English Furniture

Old English Furniture

HEN I first began, in a small way, to collect a few pieces of old English furniture, the present craze was almost in its infancy. There were, of course, a host of distinguished collectors, but the vast army of small bargain hunters had not sprung into being. Most people were then content to furnish according to the house-furnisher's taste, and you did not hear every couple setting up housekeeping chatter about old oak and Chippendale. The modern movement is undoubtedly a change in the right direction, for despite the fact that it has created a demand for and brought into existence a vast array of bad imitations of the work of the eighteenth century masters, these copies are an improvement on what went before. It does violence to one's feelings to see the twelve by ten drawing-room in a suburban villa furnished with old carved enables them to detect at once the false from the genuine, and approximately date every piece of furniture. I am not prepared to say that I am one of them, but I...

English Furniture of the Eighteenth Century Conclusion

HE history and development of English furniture has now been traced during a period of rather over one hundred years, from 16891795. Beyond this it were idle to go. The depraved taste which could tolerate, and even foster, a style such as the English Empire of Thomas Hope has nothing to render it worthy of being recorded in the same way as the evolution of the eighteenth century furniture has been followed. Perhaps not the least annoying feature of the furniture after 1795 is the fine cabinet-work and superbly figured wood which was lavished on the worthless creations of the so-called Empire period. A bald copy of the French post-Consulate style, it had not the same historical features to redeem it from the charge of sheer ugliness. We have now to consider another necessary relation, that of the artisan to his work, which is just as important a factor in the evolution of English furniture, and to which a few remarks may be devoted as a fitting conclusion to our subject. Whether the...

Furniture Design For Schools And Shops

The third principle, Harmony* is a i result of Ihe existence of rhythm anil b If there is perfect rhythm and balance in j of furniture it will he harmonious. It wi together as a unit. It will express v spoken of as unity. Harmony, therefore, quality in a design wrhich is the result of keeping all parts in family relation. There is nothing about the whole which jars upon one because of incongruous or inconsistent relationships. When one uses the principle of re-echo of line and thereby establishes a family of line as spoken of in Problems in Furniture Making, by the author, there will be harmony and unity. See Figs. A to F, Plate 5 all drawings, Plate 8 all drawings, Plate 15, for examples of harmony and unity.

Which Nail To Use In Furniture Making

Apart from panel and veneer pins the furniture-maker has little use for nails except for softwood work, etc., but in passing it should be noted that oval wire nails have less tendency to split the wood than the round variety. Nevertheless, they bend more easily, and the lost-head or finishing nail, which is a larger version of the panel-pin, is usually preferred, with the screw nail which has a twisted, as distinct from a cut, thread having greater holding power in particle board. Special panel pins or nails with hardened tips are also available for hardboards as it is difficult to break the hard glazed skin of the boards with the ordinary type which often bend. Some workers give either a pushing or pulling action to the hammer-head when driving a nail (254 1), and this certainly reduces any tendency for the nail to bend under the impact of the head. In all probability this slight swing to the hammer keeps the hammer-head flat to the nail-head, while a direct vertical swing may tend...

Bedroom furniture

Increasingly, clothes storage is being catered for either by permanent built-in units installed by the builder, or by KD linking wall units that arrive in flat boxes ready for DIY assembly. These often replace not only the traditional wardrobe but also the chest of drawers and dressing table as well. For this reason, and because the general public is less willing to spend the equivalent amount of money on bedroom furniture as they do on their sitting room, dining or kitchen requirements, bedroom furniture is an area less frequently undertaken by the craftsman. The exception to this is the chest of drawers, which can have a more general application than strictly bedroom use. However, the following information may still be useful and relevant as small workshops do get involved from time to time in the construction of built-in units, and free-standing bedroom furniture is still a requirement in many older houses.

Furniture Making

Since its first publication in 1970 The Technique of Furniture Making has established itself as the bible for all woodworkers. However, in nearly twenty years there have been considerable changes in the craft, and so this book has been revised thoroughly in order for it to continue to be as useful and relevant to today's furniture makers. The revision has been carried out by Alan Peters, one of Britain's leading furniture makers, whose own training has led him to have a ready sympathy and understanding for Ernest Joyce's approach. In addition to a great deal of new material, the whole book has been redesigned so that it is now much easier to work from. The biggest advances in the world of woodworking in recent years have been in the range and capabilities of power tools, and so this section of the book has been much expanded. Adhesives and abrasives have also developed considerably, and the large selection of products available, their applications and individual qualities are...

The Changes Made In The New Styles

It is well to be prepared in advance for the great changes that we shall find, so as to know for what to look, in our American as well as in English furniture. We are so accustomed to seeing the Chippendale and Classic Styles, and frequently in the same room, that the extent of their differences is hardly realised by the general observer. If the reader as an aperitif will occupy a few minutes in a general comparison of the Chippendale illustrations with those in this chapter he will then see in contrast what amounts to virtually two conceptions of furniture design. Much of the curvilinear element was retained by Hepplewhite but largely discarded by Sheraton his work is almost wholly rectangular. In both Styles the bold mouldings of Chippendale have now been abandoned or reduced to delicacy in scale. That magnificent borrower and exquisite draftsman, that Baptist preacher from Stockton-on-Tees who in deftness and refinement designed more like a Frenchman than any other man born on...

Oak Cupboard Stools

The development of the English oak chair has now been taken past the period when walnut superseded oak, in a great measure, as the fashionable wood for furniture. Actually, to follow a chronological order, walnut chairs of Restoration type should have been inserted in this prolSRion of oak examples. Fig. 239, for example, as we have seen, is late, and carries us well into the walnut years. In practice, however, this would have rendered the whole scheme of this chapter incoherent. Even to have illustrated the oak chairs, shown here, in the progression of their date, instead of in a manner to enable similar and dissimilar types to be compared or contrasted, would have resulted in an orderly arrangement of chapter, but at the cost of a sacrifice of clearness of explanation. English chairs develop not from one, but from many sources, and proceed on widely divergent lines. For this reason, chairs are much more heterogenous in character and in evolution than is the case with other pieces of...

Third Edition Practically rewritten

Charles for the rare and beautiful examples of furniture which thev have permitted me to illustrate from their Galleries. 1 owe much to Mr. R. S. Clouston for valuable information culled from his masterly writings on eighteenth-century furniture, and to Miss Constance Simon for dates, addresses, &c., which that lady unravelled from various sources and published in her 41 English Furniture Designers of the Eighteenth Century.

Chipcarved Chest Of Elm And

The dole cupboard, Fig. 37, said to have come from Ivychurch, an old house at Alderbury in iltshire, but probably looted from a monastery at the Dissolution, is earlier, and better than the preceding. To begin with, it is low, not as high as an ordinary table, and has little or none of the appearance of a cupboard cut down. It has the usual central door (it is to be noted that double doors shutting together do not appear, in English furniture, until the close of the seventeenth century) pierced with geometrical devices, and the broad front styles or uprights are traceried in rude Gothic forms without cusping. The vertical mouldings are merely gouge-channels, very different from the scratched mouldings of Fig. 36. This dole cupboard was probably intended to stand on a raised platform or table in the chancel, to contain gifts of the charitable, such as loaves,

Key To The Illustration On Opposite Page

The guiding and directing influence of the Church is very apparent in such woodwork and furniture prior to 1520, which has persisted to the present day, and its absence is equally noticeable in the later work. Gothic woodwork and furniture is, necessarily, ecclesiastical in proper habitat as it is in origin. Secular houses, prior to the sixteenth cvntury, contain little or no furniture or woodwork, as a general rule, and there is an absence of fine detail or workmanship. It is possible that such was not appreciated nor desired, by even the very wealthy, until towards the middle of the sixteenth century, when a new style, generally known as Tudor, free from the somewhat rigid qualities of the ecclesiastical Gothic, begins to arise. An era of house building also sets in at this period, when internecine strife ceases, and fortified castles began to be replaced by dwelling-houses or mansions. Gothic details, such as two- and three-centred arch in door-heads, crocheting and cusping in...

Brass Fenders Of The Later Eighteenth Century

In the same way as the furniture designs of Robert Adam were considerably modified by the cabinetmaker, so were his sketches of grates accepted in a general sense only. Considering how much wearisome iteration is evident in his designs the same motives being repeated over and over again it is surprising how great his influence has been, and still is, on the trades of the makers of grates and fenders. The educational value of this influence has been too frequently underrated, as, although it is easy to adopt Adam details, their use, in combination with the Adam proportions, is by no means an acquirement possessed by every designer. His style has been travestied an ornamentation of swags or medallions is even now forthwith dubbed as being in the Adams style. Chippendale, Hepplewhite, and Sheraton suffered in an equal degree it appears to have been the penalty which all the eighteenth century designers paid to posterity. It would have been remarkable had Robert Adam escaped. If his style...

Photography By John Morley

THE FEAR of disruption to work schedules, coupled with worry that clients may be put off by apparent chaos, results in many furniture-makers discouraging visits to workshops. GUY LEWIS is a professional cabinetmaker working in Sturminster Newton in Dorset. He can be contacted on 0 I 258 471642. GUY LEWIS is a professional cabinetmaker working in Sturminster Newton in Dorset. He can be contacted on 0 I 258 471642.

Furniture For Outside

These two visually striking tables and matching benches in elm illustrate that preciousness and fine cabinetwork are not the only areas of interest for the furniture-maker. Designed and made to commission in both cases by Ashley Cartwright, 539 shows a 6 ft (1800 mm) square table for the English National Trust, and 540 a 9 ft (2750 mm) table and chairs for a private client.

Reacting to constructive criticism

The jury pointed out these things, suggesting that the man clean up the shoulders of his tenons. The furniture maker chose to ignore the advice and brought back the same chair when he reapplied, protesting, This is the way a country craftsman would have built the chair 100 years ago.

Has been abandoned as being of lesserBSttWI

During the seventeenth century, articles of furniture began to increase, both in amount and variety. Apart from the era of building that commenced about 1510 and lasted, with little intermission, until almost the end of the eighteenth century (a list of important houses from 1510 to 1790 could be made with no lapse of as much as a decade between the completion of the one and the commencement of another), which gave a great impetus to the craft of the furniture maker, there was gradually emerging from the ranks of the artisans a middle class that also demanded furniture for houses of the lesser type. For such

Digitized by Microsoft

N considering the furniture creations of the brothers Adam, we have to adopt a totally different method than with the work of any of the eighteenth century craftsmen. A fashionable cabinet-maker such as Chippendale, or a poor, neglected teacher of drawing like Sheraton, had each been trained in the workshop, and possessed the practical artisan's experience. Whether or no they made all or none of the furniture which they designed is immaterial they were capable of doing so had occasion demanded, and their creations were finished when they left their hand, and could be executed with little or no modification by any experienced workman. The reference here, in the case of Chippendale, is to his actual designs, those which were made specifically for the workshop as distinct from many of the Director patterns, which were frankly evolved to catch the eye of a wealthy public eager for any new absurdity, or to puzzle his fellow-craftsmen. The main point is, that both Chippendale and Sheraton...

Interior Architecturecolonial

Sheraton Movement American Furniture

Not all those who have a fair knowledge of American furniture realise the importance of its architectural setting. On the other hand too great purism is inadvisable for we do not always consider how comparatively few Briftly period interiors can have existed in any paSt period. An example would be an edifice Between say 1722 and 1730 there was an abandonment of this bolder, heavier Queen Anne type in favour of one of greater refinement, and from this time on there was a constant development and organisation of this new mode, and what that mode was and how that development occurred should properly be understood. It was simply the transfer to America of the English architectural Style of the Georges, and is properly, therefore, termed the Georgian Style. JuSt as our cabinetmakers were working in the English mode, so were our builders. And this occurred in each case through the same means. Workmen in both branches came from England but during this period the greatest infiltration of...

Queen Annes Line Of Beauty

Norm Vandal

In material objects such as furniture, I believe beauty is born from pleasing proportion and the harmonious relationship between curved and straight lines. Straight lines impart structure, mass, and solidity. Curved lines lend movement, elegance, and grace. To me, Queen Anne-style furniture presents the perfect union of straight and curved components. Simple lines, graceful curves, unpretentious decoration, and delicate proportion all contribute to some of the most beautiful expressions in American furniture. Queen Anne is a name given to a style of furniture first produced in the American Colonies in the early to mid 18th Century. Assigning periods or historical epochs to furniture styles, however, is solely useful for discussions about their origins. This style saw only embryonic development during the reign of Queen Anne herself, yet it remains immensely popular to this day. Indeed, while I am certainly not an 18th Century cabinetmaker, most of the pieces I've produced in my rural,...

The New Hampshire definition of fine furniture

At the heart of the League and the Masters groups are their three-person juries. Currently, Moore and Jere Osgood serve on both juries, exerting a unified force on studio furniture making in the state. The juries are strict but supportive. Applicants who fall short on their first try are deferred, not failed, and are given specific pointers for future success. According to Moore, deferred woodworkers often are invited to bring pieces to a jury member's shop for informal mentoring.

To outdo each other Loran Smith New Durham

Kristina Madsen Furniture

The state's top furniture makers banded together in 1994, forming the New Hampshire Furniture Masters Association to market their work to buyers beyond the region. Gathered in Canterbury, N.H., at the group's recent annual meeting are, from left along the curved back row, Thomas McLaughlin, Howard Hatch, Ted Blachly, Terry Moore, Garrett Hack, Jon Brooks, Jon Siegel, Jere Osgood, Jeffrey Cooper and Jo Stone and in the right foreground, from left, are Loran Smith, Wayne Marcoux, Bill Thomas, Omar Clairmont and David Lamb. shops. What piqued McLaughlin's interest most, though, was a brand-new, third organization, launched by the state's master furniture makers, Lamb among them. about the tradition of fine furniture making in the state and the concept of patronage, and publicizing the auction to potential buyers in Connecticut, New York and beyond. The first exhibit and auction was held in 1996, and the new approach was an instant success. Last September...

English Borrowings And Transmittals

It is perhaps not generally realised that about the middle of the eighteenth century French was the language of the court of England and that in manners as well as in coStume the effecft of Parisian fashion was enormous, extending through the latter half of the century and the beginning of the nineteenth. The English furniture of the period is usually denominated late Sheraton or late Georgian, and while, naturally, many features of Sheraton's early Style continued, that Style was almo& metamorphosed by this new French influence. As early as January, 1793, Sheraton publishes a plate of A Dining Parlour in imitation of the Prince of Wales's and in describing that of the Prince says The chairs are of mahogany, made in the Style of the French, with broad top-rails hanging over each back foot (as in the second French chair in the series of four tracings) the legs are turned, and the seats covered with red leather. I could not shew the curtains of each window without confusion, but they...

Oak Trestle Table Of Light Type

It appears to be almost a fixed law, in the case of English furniture, that development is always in the direction of lighter construction. Thus, the table shown in Fig. 127, originally from Cowdray Priory, and now restored, as nearly as possible, to its former home, is late for its type, which is that of the fifteenth rather than of the sixteenth century. There are details, such as the thin top, the slender trestles, and the light stretcher-railings, which indicate a later date, beyTond question. The lesson has been learned here, that massive baulks of oak are not necessarily- permanent by reason of their size, as proper seasoning of bulky timbers is difficult, if not impossible. It is safer to use oak of lesser scantling, which has been thoroughly dried and matured.

Grading and classification of plywood

Grading Classification

25 Manufactured boards 1 3 ply construction 2 5 ply construction 3 Multi-ply construction 4 Blockboard 5 Laminboard 6 Battenboard (unsuitable for quality furniture-making) 7 Particle board (chipboard) 8 Grain direction when ordering furniture-makers do not require weather-resistant plywoods, but they must be confident that the plies are well bonded and will not laminate, and that they will withstand bacterial and fungoid attack therefore the type of bonding medium used is of importance. It is, for instance, hardly sufficient to describe a plywood as well-glued or resin-bonded, for the former term may include weak vegetable glues, while the latter may be so extended with fillers compounded of cereal flours, etc. that the implicit moisture-resistant properties are lost.

Mahogany Corner Chair

Of the Edict of Nantes, with which this book commenced. The accession of William the Third, the warfare between the rival East India Companies of England and Holland, the introduction of the Brunswick dynasty from Hanover, and the rise of Robert Adam, are further instances of radical changes in the development of English furniture arising from apparently trivial causes. The event, however, which served to direct the eyes of Europe in the direction of France in more marked fashion than had ever occurred before, was the execution of Louis XVI. and his young consort in 1792. Weak as the French king had been, misguided and cursed with a remarkable faculty of irritating national prejudices as Marie Antoinette undoubtedly was, the ingrained love of hereditary monarchy of Western Europe was enough to cause the nations to revolt against the barbarity of the punishment. The Reign of Terror which followed alienated every outside spark of sympathy for the French nation. It must have been known...

The Dating Of The Period

As Phyfe occupied a very advantageous position in that he was located in New York, by then advancing in metropolitan prominence, and was working for a select clientele, it is likely that he was one of the firSt to adopt the Direftoire mode. It would, therefore, have been exceedingly interesting to establish the date of his firSt productions in that vein, and I have bent considerable effort in trying to ascertain this. Mr. Halsey, who has Studied Phyfe furniture for thirty years, tells me that he learned before Phyfe furniture was known, that certain old families in New York had records that certain pieces were made by a cabinetmaker named Phyfe, and so these pieces are documented to that extent. I have not, however, learned of bills or records that would fix the date of his firSt Dire loire work. decoration, and one that has little if any application to the American furniture of previous periods, is the word influence. Our craftsmen did not work under the influence of Hepplewhite or...

Movement And Shrinkage

Tortrix Viridana Effects Wood

Colour or texture, knots and abnormalities all produce the ornamental markings or 'figure' on the surface of the wood, and are of great importance to the furniture-maker. All these are innate, i.e. natural characteristics, and can be further developed or exaggerated by the methods of sawing adopted. For example, radial cuts in true quartered oak and chestnut follow the path of the medullary rays, and show the typical 'flash' or 'silver grain' to best advantage. These rays are also visible in quarter-cut beech, while sycamore will sometimes produce a magnificent flame figure, and plane a rich lacy pattern (lacewood). Again, quarter sawing of some timbers produces very straight regular grain patterns, instead of the usual contour markings of flat sawn timber where the saw cuts through the annual growth rings. If there are concentric bands of colour encircling the tree, as in Rio rosewood, Macassar ebony and other exotics, then quartering will produce boldly marked vertical stripings,...

Gillows of Lancaster and London

HE necessity for devoting a considerable amount of space to the chronicles of the house of Gillow would not have been so urgent were it not necessary to enter into a mass of detail regarding the many inaccurate statements which have been made regarding the old firm. It is hardly fair to blame any person, or persons, in particular, for the genesis and propagation of these fables it is, perhaps, with a house of business more than two centuries old, in the natural order of things that they should have arisen. The cause is possibly threefold. In the first place, there is always a tendency to invest an old business with a certain amount of oral romance, which insensibly grows when it is handed down through several generations secondly, it is difficult to imagine a furniture maker of size, if not of repute, existing throughout the eighteenth century without reflecting some of the glories, if not coming into actual association with such famous craftsmen and designers as Chippendale, Adam,...

Pullover Cross Cut Saws Radial Arm Saws

A heavy duty radial or swing saw mounted on a long wooden table is a regular item of equipment in most joinery workshops for the rapid crosscutting of squared up boards and timbers. It is less common in cabinet-making shops simply because waney edge boards are more commonly used. Many shops do have a lighter version, the radial arm saw, which has been particularly developed for the home craftsman and has a versatility that enables many processes from ripping to drilling to be accomplished on one machine. Its main use for the professional, though, with other machinery at his disposal, is for crosscutting and trenching dadoing (cutting long housings) for book-shelving and similar carcass work.

American Countrycolonial

Secret Compartments Furniture Plans

Although more sophisticated styles supplanted these designs in prosperous colonial towns, rustic furniture prevailed on the ever-advancing frontier. With its simplicity, durability, and economy, traditional American Country furniture continues to appeal to 20th-century furniture makers, particularly those living in rural America.

Walnut Twotier Sideboard

Towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth, the buffet and the standing, or courtcupboard, with pillars of bulbous turning, come into fashion, and add to the variety in English furniture of that period. Generally speaking, however, these bulb-turned pieces are of seventeenth- rather than of sixteenth-century date, as the pattern did not develop very fully, either in wall-pieces or tables, until after James I occupied the throne of England. The later sixteenth-century pieces, however, especially those of eastern-county origin, have a peculiar richness of detail and conciseness of execution, which is unmistakable when once . _

Cast and moulded structures Thermosetting plastics

Vacuum forming is the most interesting technique for the furniture-maker as with this process relatively large recessed shapings can be effectively and economically produced with simple apparatus. Integral chair shell structures which are produced by the injection-moulding process require heavy and expensive equipment, but certain plastics which are not sufficiently free flowing for injection moulding lend themselves to vacuum forming. The principles involved are relatively straightforward. A presoftened sheet of suitable plastic is securely clamped round the perimeter of an open-top box containing the shaped mould or former a vacuum is then applied to the box to pull the flexible sheet down over the former mould and held until the sheet has chilled off and fixed the shape. Stiffer plastics may require plunger assistance, and in this system the moulding former is in the shape of a plunger which is forced down into the softened sheet, while for deep drawings a vacuum is employed to...

Appeal Of Federal Style

As a graduate student at the Winterthur Museum Program in Early American Culture, I was privileged to work with the country's premiere collection of American furniture, including the best examples of the styles most popular with cabinetmakers today Queen Anne and Chippendale. Even in this setting, though, I was always drawn to the neoclassical pieces of the later Federal and Empire eras. As curator of the Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore 17 years later, I am still studying and writing about those wonderful pieces that I found so appealing. The great neoclassical architect interior designer Robert Adam introduced the new style to the English gentry, and furniture designers George Hepplewhite and Thomas Sheraton published highly influential books that popularized its ancient Greek and Roman decorative motifs. By about 1810, Federal style began to evolve into Late Neoclassical or Empire taste, which was even more closely inspired by archaeological discoveries. Actual pieces of...

Other Edge Tools Chisels

Steel Furniture Making Tools

It is hardly necessary to have complete sets of mortise-, firmer- and bevelled edged chisels for furniture-making, as the bevelled-edged will do everything necessary. Nor are complete sets of any one type essential, for there will always be three or four favourites to which the hand automatically turns. A first selection could be 1 8 in (3 mm), 1 4 in (6 mm), 3 8 in (9 mm), 1 2 in (12.5 mm) and 4 in (19 mm) bevelled edge (61 lA) with the addition of a 1 16 in (1.5 mm) firmer type (61 lB) and perhaps a 1 2in (12.5 mm) mortise-chisel (61 lC), with the later addition of a long paring-chisel (61 4B), and a butt- or sash-pocket chisel (61 4c) for fitting work away from the workshop.

Original and Modern Polishes

T is necessary for a proper understanding of what is commonly known as original polishes or patina to describe in detail the various processes which English furniture has undergone during the last three centuries. It is apparent from the foregoing that modern French-polishing plays little or no part in English furniture of the eighteenth century, but a description of the methods employed may still be of service, if only in detecting the difference between original and modern polishes. The description given applies only to mahogany, although with the exception of the staining, the methods are identical in the case of other woods. Forgeries of English Furniture of the Eighteenth Century. A good deal has been written, in books dealing with the subject of English furniture, regarding the methods of the maker of spurious antiques, but each writer has assumed that all such forgeries necessarily fall within the first of the three categories mentioned above. It requires very little experience...

Properties Of Common Woods

The following list gives descriptions of some of the more widely known woods suitable for furniture-making. In each case, colour, texture, figure, working properties and behaviour can only be an approximation or general average, for individual trees within each species may differ very considerably. There will be marked differences between trees of the same species and accorded the same commercial gradings grown some 2000 miles apart, but there can also be an appreciable difference between trees grown only a few hundred miles apart. Movement or dimensional change is arrived at by adding together the tangential and radial movement values occasioned by a change in environmental humidity of 90 per cent (equivalent to a moisture content in timber of

Particle Boards Chipboards

Particle boards are heavier than most other wood materials (33 to 40 lb per cu. ft or 528.609 to 640.739kgpercu.m according to the density) as the glue content is relatively high moreover they have no long fibres and thus have little bending strength and tend to crumble at the edges if roughly treated. Always provided that these boards are not treated merely as substitutes for solid timber and forced to conform to long-established constructional methods, but regarded as valid materials in their own right, well worthy of new methods and applications, there is no doubt whatever that their use will continue to expand, and indeed they will become the standard material for furniture-making. With their obvious advantages this is almost inevitable, for not only do they make use of what is virtually waste material (forest thinnings, bough wood, etc.) but the very fact that they are man-made materials means that there is always scope for research and development in the production of lighter,...

Jointingjoining Methods

Variety used is considerable, and the amount of use to which the piece of furniture will be put can only be broadly assessed. The cabinetmaker has, therefore, very little scientific data to help him, and he must rely almost entirely on tradition, instinct and as much practical experience as he can muster.


The Mission style is an offshoot of the Arts and Crafts movement that evolved in England as a reaction to the stylistic excesses of the Victorian period and to the decline in craftsmanship caused by the Industrial Revolution. Led by designers like Gustav Stickley, American furniture makers adopted preindustrial work methods to create functional, unadorned furniture. Mission-style pieces featured exposed joints, native wood species (often oak) and a generally more rustic look. Mission furniture greatly influenced major architects such as Charles and Henry Greene and Frank Lloyd Wright

Legitimate Divorce

. For the firSt time, then, that this has been done, I have separated this American furniture from its undesirable companionship and a Study of the illustrations will quickly make it evident that given its own juSt opportunity this DireBoire type triumphantly emerges as at once one of the simplest, moSt elegant, and lovelieSt of Styles. This I believe to be in itself a quite sufficient justification for the Step I have taken, but if further reason be necessary it can quickly be adduced. In every book English and American touching upon the subject, with which I am acquainted, obloquy is heaped upon the head of Sheraton for following the French Empire Style to the utter ruin of his furniture design. That in his laSt days of misery and penury he did do extremely bad things and was probably forced so to do by the trend of the times, to keep himself alive is undeniable but on the other hand, has there been discrimination shown, and is he given credit for the entirely delightful pieces...

Woodturning Lathes

Most furniture-makers require turned components from time to time, from chair legs to turned drawer knobs, so it makes sense, if space permits, to undertake this within the workshop. The woodturning lathe can also be a useful source of income, and bowls and platters, often from the waste products of furniture-making, can keep apprentices and trainees gainfully employed between orders. It is preferable to purchase as heavy a machine as

Fibre Boards

Fibre boards have been used extensively in the building industry for many years in various densities, but until recently the only application for furniture-making was the dense hardboard used for back panels and drawer bottoms. More recently, a medium density fibreboard (MDF) has been manufactured for the furniture industry, and it is available in thicknesses from 1 4 in (6 mm) up to 1 in (25 mm), which gives it a versatility in use that previously only plywood enjoyed.

Water stones

Over the past few years a growing number of craftsmen in Britain and the USA have swung over to using inexpensive Japanese water stones. These are only available from specialist tool suppliers and, due to their extreme softness, are unsuitable for the novice or for school use. However, used with care, they cut fast, produce a near perfect edge, and avoid the use of messy oil. This latter is important as it is a basic necessity for the furniture-maker to keep his hands clean and free from grease, or he will spend half his time cleaning off dirty thumb prints.

Grecian Squab

Duncan Phyfe Directoire Table

As will have been seen, Duncan Phyfe by no means Stood alone as the only fine cabinet-maker of the period, but as his was an extensive establishment and as his is the beSt known name in the annals of American furniture-making, a few particulars regarding him may be welcome. For the dates I am indebted to Mr. Cornelius. years he was making furniture for members of the AStor family and speedily became prominent. He gradually added other houses to his original establishment and is said to have employed more than a hundred workmen. He finally retired in 1847, lived a quiet, comfortable life, and died in 1854 at the age of 86.

All Rights Reserved

THERE IS EVERY CHANCE that the end of the 20th century will be looked back on as a golden age of furniture-making. At this time, makers are working in the widest range of idioms imaginable, as they have so much to choose from the ages of oak and walnut precede the extraordinary 75 years or so that comprise what we call the Georgian period the latter followed by the exuberant Regency style Arts & Crafts from Morris to Mackintosh, Shaker from the USA and of course the 20th Century itself - a rich palette by any standards. As today's craftsmen can draw on such a continuing tradition, their work develops free of constraint on design. Likewise the diversity of techniques available to the furniture-maker has never been greater, traditional approaches such as dovetailing and morticing co-existing with biscuit joints, routed joints and high-tech adhesives. Whatever your taste in furniture design and preference in techniques, the projects in this book will not only provide a useful source of...

Federal Period

Federal Period Window Seat

After the Revolution, American furniture makers began to distance themselves from British influence. Endeavoring to create a new style, they turned to the classical designs of ancient Greece and Rome. For this reason, Federal furniture is often called Neoclassical. More austere than Chippendale, Federal pieces typically mimicked the lines and features of antiquity, such as columns, animal claws, reeding, fluting, and the lyre. Despite efforts to achieve independence, however, American cabinetmakers remained under British influence. The designs of Englishmen George Hepplewhite and Thomas Sheraton were widely circulated and copied in America, although some New World designers attempted to Americanize the British styles by incorporating the eagle and other patriotic motifs. CLASSIC AMERICAN FURNITURE STYLES

Sheraton Chairs

Sheraton Chairs

Notwithstanding all his borrowings, there is a certain quality in Sheraton's typical design that is difficult to describe in language but that will be felt by one appreciative of loveliness in proportion and form this quality is inherent in moSt of his chair backs. I regret that the number of illustrations for which I muSt find room forbids my showing all his plates. It is a deprivation to American furniture that our craftsmen rendered so few of these designs.

Electric Drills

A useful development of recent years has been the cordless drill which has simply to be charged up from time to time from an outlet of the mains supply. It has transformed the noisy, fast electric drill into a lightweight, quiet, refined cabinetmaker's tool. It runs at low speeds and can be used with absolute safety for many delicate drilling operations and even as a mechanical screwdriver.

Til Ji

Charles Woo Sheraton

It is by no means always easy to be sure of the locality in which a certain piece of American furniture was made. The colle&or of course buys from many sources the dealer may not always be successful in tracing the history of his purchase and for information he is more or less at the mercy of his informant, though his experience and in some cases his expert knowledge of the cabinet-making methods of the different sections nevertheless Stands him in good Stead and enables him to check up. We muSt also remember the frequent migration of families. When a piece has remained in one location through a number of generations there is a fair presumption that this is its origin. Though there is no extant testimony to that effect, I have always felt it to be moSt probable that Sheraton throughout his career was designing furniture for cabinet-makers certain it is that we frequently encounter English furniture not appearing in his books and which yet is so chara&eriStic of his design that we do...

Saw Kerfing

This traditional method is not now used to any great extent in production furniture-making, but it still has an important role in smaller workshops, as it is often a more economic method in one-off work than laminating. In practice a series of saw cuts are run down to within about 1 8 in (3 mm) of the outer face (319 1) according to the wood species, and the closer the cuts are the easier the wood will bend, with hard oak requiring a spacing of 1 4 in (6 mm) or less. There is a tendency for the bend to form a series of small flats at (A) not discernible in the white but magnified under a gloss polish, therefore highly finished surfaces should not be bent by this method. It is, however, useful for bending sheets of stiff plywood or laminboard and 319 2, 3 show its application to lengths of very hard English maple moulding (A) which warped badly after they had been worked. Saw cuts were run in 319 2 down to the dotted line (A), the moulding G-cramped C-clamped down to a level surface...

Electric Chainsaws

The lightweight electric chainsaws which have recently been introduced are a great asset to the furniture-maker. They are invaluable for roughing out large, thick boards to arrive at the sizes that can be manhandled on the normal workshop machinery. They are much safer and more versatile in use than the portable circular saws, although a little more wasteful of wood. Also, for those involved in sculptural work, heavy bowl turning or carving, they are very manageable aids to roughing out and removing waste material.

Pembroke Table

The Pembroke table is thought to have originated in the mid-18th Century, when Lady Pembroke commissioned the great Georgian cabinetmaker and master carver Thomas Chippendale to fashion a small casual table for her. The example featured in this chapter, however, has more in common with the neoclassical designs of Sheraton and American Federal furniture, which flourished in the following century. Its graceful blend of straight lines and gentle curves contrasts sharply with the intricate and ornate rococo designs of Chippendale.

Hand tools

The basic tools of woodwork and the elementary processes of sawing, chiselling and smoothing wood are widely known, and detailed repetition is hardly necessary. What is of concern here is the specialized application of these basic techniques to the fabrication of project components, usually of small dimension, which will eventually become pieces of furniture. Therefore, although the tools employed and the methods of manipulating them are in principle the same as for any woodworking trade, the furniture-maker must always endeavour to work to precision limits. So although he may use the same kind of saw. chisel, plane, etc. as any other woodworker, the saw will tend to have finer teeth, the chisel will be of the lighter, bevelled edged variety, the smoothing-plane will be the standard tool but it will be keener and more finely set. In the main, therefore, his tools will be orthodox but more numerous they must be the very best of their respective kinds and he must be scrupulous in...

Cftpter XIII

English Facade

HOMAS SHERATON occupies an exceptional position in the history of English furniture, as, although his actual influence on the design of his day was very considerable, he has been popularly credited with so much which really does not belong to him at all. In the case of Thomas Chippendale we had to deal with a fashionable cabinet-maker, well-established, and employing some thirty or forty people in the realisation of his ideas. His published designs represented pieces which he had either actually made, or did make subsequently, or, at all events, were in the style which he followed in his productions. It was pointed out, at the time when his work was considered, that when a noted maker collected all the available designs which he could either create or borrow, it was in the nature of tilings that after the lapse of a century and a half his style should have a retrospective bearing in other words, that when he copied pieces of some ten or twenty years previous to Iris day, or...

Windsor Furniture

A deceptively well-engineered furniture style whose parts are assembled mainly from wooden sticks, Windsor represents one of history's most innovative and recognizable furniture designs. The Windsor family of furniture consists of stools, chairs, cradles, stands, and tables. Chairs are the largest category with eight different basic forms, such as comb-backs, step-downs, and the sack-back version, which is featured beginning on page 70. Chairs also spawned nine derivatives that include stools, rocking chairs, writing armchairs, and child-sized chairs. Now retired, Dr. John Kassay taught furniture design for 30 years at San Francisco State University. His Book of Shaker Furniture, published by the University of Massachussetts Press, is considered one of the foremost reference books on Shaker style. He is currently preparing a similar book on Windsor furniture for the same publisher. He lives in San Bruno, California.

Peoria illinois

The particular value of the revised over former editions of Problems in Furniture Making is ir. the rewr'tten and enlarged printed portion of the book together with what is believed to be a better selection of problems, both new and old. Since writing the chapter on ' Design for the first issue of Problems in Furniture Making, the author has given considerable additional attention to this subject. The chapter on ' Form and Proportion in Problems in Wood-Turning was tLe result of sub sequent study and experience. While all the principles involved therein are not applicable to furniture design, it will be of great help if the user of this book will familiarize himself with them. At the close of this present chapter a chronological summary of steps taken in the design of a piece of furniture is given. The formal arrangement of these steps is the result, also, of the work of recent years. For a more detailed consideration of the princi pies of design in connection with problems in...

Sefacs And Prfacse

N the attempt to write a history of English furniture and woodwork showing its development in an orderly progression, one is confronted by an initial difficulty where to begin. Of woodwork prior to the fourteenth century we know very little, and of furniture practically nothing. Even if isolated specimens, for illustration, were available, which is not the case, they would be useless for our present purpose. I have pointed out, in other books on the subject, that an account of the evolution of furniture types,-especially when an attempt is made to date examples,- must be a chronicle of the fashions which prevailed at various periods. A solitary piece which has survived from very early times may, or may not, be indicative of the fashions of its time we cannot know unless we can produce others of corresponding date and type, which establish the fact. We must always bear in mind also the possibility of a later copy of an earlier original. Thus, oak dressers and square-dial long-case...

A threetiered system

The creation of the New Hampshire Furniture Masters Association completed the state's furniture-making hierarchy, said Terry Moore, a founding member of the Masters Association and the Guild. Woodworkers typically start in the Guild, work to get juried into the League and then work toward the Masters Association, he explained. The Masters group represents the highest level of craftsmanship, supporting the state's top furniture makers and giving up-and-coming woodworkers something to strive for. Smith's furniture-making career hit a high point recently when he sold a Federal sideboard to U.S. Sen. Judd Gregg and was invited by Gregg's wife for a VIP tour of the White House. Both the League and the Masters Association help aspiring furniture makers realize their goal of getting out of commercial jobs and into studio work. I'm a product of the system, Moore said. I was building kitchen cabinets when I stumbled onto Living with Crafts. Living with Crafts is a 20-year-old exhibit that...

Trays for specimens

Latter are special fittings calling for precision manufacture, and 244 refers only to those normally made by furniture-makers for private collectors, or the occasional 'one off for special display purposes. Whichever type they are, however, the trays should be close fitting as in drawer-work and interchangeable throughout.

Table lining

Hitherto a separate craft, the lining-in of inset leather or baize surfaces to table- and desk-tops was usually passed over to small specialist firms who also gold blocked the borders. The actual laying of the leather, etc. is now often done by the furniture-maker, with any gold border blocked in by a specialist. It should be pointed out in this connection that most leathers are now heavily dressed with synthetic resin lacquers during finishing which may or may not take the leaf or foil, and this should be established before laying.

Portable Planers

These have only a limited use for the furniture-maker who, unlike the joiner and builder working out on site, has constant access to a floor-mounted machine. On occasion, however, the surface planer may not be wide enough, and then the portable is extremely useful for these extra wide boards or table tops, even though, for final accuracy, a hand plane will be needed.

Style In Furniture

At the highest pitch of development and by reason of the fact that they were responsible for the plans of many of the more important buildings furnished on the lines laid down by the originators of those three styles, they have received a great amount of credit to which they were never in the least entitled. What they really earned should suffice. Although they made some slight essays in the designing of furniture, these architects, as a matter of fact, exerted but small direct influence upon English furniture proper, notwithstanding the fact that their name is so frequently quoted in connection with it. The marks which they did leave upon the interior of our homes were, for the most part, in the way of stucco wall and ceiling decoration, and mantelpieces of which they designed a vast number.

The nineteenth century

If any reader should desire to study the furniture of that period more closely than he will be able to do here, he cannot do better than refer to the special volumes issued by the Art Journal at that time, which are to be found in most reference-libraries, and illustrate the glories ( ) of that exhibition. I have also, in the chapter on Other Georgeian Types, given the names of several other illustrated works dealing extensively with English furniture and decoration of that dark age ' I much prefer that the examples should be found there than in these pages. Tasteful furniture was, of course, not altogether unknown to our forefathers of the days of which I am now writing but such as then existed was on the lines laid down by Chippendale, Heppelwhite, Sheraton, and even earlier masters, or else consisted of such English renderings of the Empire as were more refined than the majority of those interpretations. So matters went on for many a long year without any very great effort being...

Industry Leaders Nominated

American Furniture Hall Of Fame The American Furniture Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc. (AFHF) recently announced the nominees for induction into the American Furniture Hall of Fame. New members will be officially inducted into the American Furniture Hall of Fame at the annual banquet celebration on October 2 at the High Point Market. The American Furniture Hall of Fame Foundation Inc. is an international, industry-wide effort organized to honor those individuals whose outstanding achievements have contributed to the continued growth and development of the U.S. furniture industry, as well as to research, collect and preserve it's cultural, economic and artistic history. The organization is based in High Point, NC, and can be reached at 336.882.5900 ( Latest and best books available on interior design, decoration, home furnishings, fabncs, furniture design and history, More than 800 titles available for sale Competitive prices, safe and easy ordenng.

Summary Of The Correct With Care And Proper Treatment

Not many years hence there will be little opportunity for us to restore or refinish fine early American furniture. Pieces then will not so often come to us in the rough from a minor dealer or ancient attic. They will reach us only through the dispersal of collections large or small, and the In judging the age of any piece of American furniture by its original brasses, there are a few considerations which should always be borne in mind. Styles changed slowly in the old days, transportation was difficult, and many communities and individuals were somewhat isolated. It is probable that not a few makers of furniture and a few stores

Tools and techniques of conversion and construction

There have been great advances in the application of woodworking machines to furniture-making, but no really major advances in machine type. Accuracy and speed increased through the mechanical adaptation of hand operations powered by various independent sources, and by the electrification of hand tools. However, many furniture-making operations remain a mix between machine processes and hand work. Various techniques have been adopted in particular fields to match materials development with technical competence. The Thonet company adapted their experience in bending wood to producing bent metal furniture. Other developments outside the industry also contributed to change. Developments in both World Wars had an effect on furniture production, these included changes in factory management, the increase in the range of new materials, the de-skilling of labour and the application of technology once unrelated to furniture-making. For example, the Chrysler Corporation's experience of cycle...

Style and type of construction

From the 1870s, attempts to influence furniture design by the Aesthetic movement were successful. The ideas taken from Japanese art and design produced a lighter and more delicate range of furniture. This was made by art furniture-makers. E.W. Godwin was the most important designer in this field, his productions using carefully balanced components, combined with Japanese materials such as stamped leather and netsuke. They were often ebonized and fitted with silver components. The Japanese taste extended to poor copies of art furniture, often comprising standard designs embellished with fretwork. Far more successful During the century the attempts by the furniture industry to meet the demands of the growing population for stylish and even ostentatious furniture were decried by design reformers. The problem was that reformers could not break out of the system. Reviving traditional methods and materials would inevitably have been very expensive and the introduction of plain, simple...

Pound On The Sheraton Type Oe Sofa

To the King and was soon to make his taste predominate over the elaboration of the Chippendale following. George Hepplewhite, whose influence upon Phyfe must be taken into account, was working at his trade and acquiring the experience in furniture design and construction of which the Hepplewhite Guide later gave ample evidence. Thomas Sheraton, Phyfe's immediate inspiration, then a youth apprenticed to a provincial craftsman, was imbibing a knowledge of the mechanics of his craft as well as formulating a complete conception of religious doctrine which bred in him the pedagogical instinct dictating the scope of his later activities. The heritage of many epochs of furniture design which had come down to the cabinet-makers of the last half of the eighteenth century was brought by them to a luxuriant flowering. The evolution of furniture forms was already accomplished with a few exceptions which the usage of the time soon called into being. The wide variety of materials already in use...

The Form Stage And Its Enrichment

While the volumetric stage was concerned with the functional and aesthetic motives of the whole while the massand-space stage dealt with structural fundamental elements, their pattern thrusts, balances, and rhythms this, the last stage, deals with methods of construction and the enrichment of the form. In many instances, beautiful construction is the enrichment but, due to the flowing, growing, plastic qualities of modern design, the construction is not obtrusive, and must not appear to be put together, piece by piece. Long, continuous, flowing lines, therefore, are much in evidence secret dovetail joints, and excellent craftsmanship. These constructive points and their subordination to the spaces and masses, to light and shade, are a swing away from traditional forms in which emphasis was placed on such details as arms, legs, and so on, with these members frequently becoming elements carrying almost unsupportable weights of enrichment, as seen in the elaborately carved legs of the...

An Important Principle

The three-part principle may well be closely observed by the furniture designer, not so much, however, in the development of the design as in the conclusion of the same. If upon inspection a design cannot readily be analyzed to present three well-defined main parts its value may be questioned. It may, of course, be an exception. On the whole the rule is a safe one to follow. 2. In furniture design, especially of the craft type, curves are used principally in modeling lines. Consequently the sharp turn at the end of the long sweeping curve will very likely be adjacent to a straight line, because the modeled line will be a variation of a part of some straight line. The intersection of these two the short curve and the adjacent straight line, which very often is the edge of a stile or rail- is known as a posHii't point. Kwn as

Furniture Of The French Renaissance


Organization of the trade

As with many medieval trades, the superior craftsmen organized themselves into guilds. Furniture-making guilds were established for carpenters, carvers, gilders, joiners, turners, smiths and leather workers. One of the earliest was a turner's guild, established in Cologne by 1180, and in the late fourteenth century a menuisier's guild was founded in Paris, but the differentiation between 'furniture-makers' and carpenters existed, in France, well before the fourteenth century. Carpenters were responsible for large-scale structural work, whilst joiners developed techniques for exacting and accurate construction of interior furnishings. The trade of coffer-maker apart from making trunks and coffers was also responsible for the embryonic craft of upholstery.

Problems With the Fitting of Pieces

Wood is, in many ways, like a sponge. It absorbs water when the humidity is high and gives it up when the humidity is low. Wood used in furniture making and in making kits is kiln dried and delivered to the maker at a specific moisture content, and the pieces of a kit are shaped at this moisture level. They arc made to fit together snugly and accurately.

Sanding Doweling Joinery Techniques

To begin with, there are only eight basic joining methods in woodworking. Through the centuries, woodworkers have tried various ways to join pieces of wood so the joints would be both durable and attractive, and only eight basic joint formations have survived. Five of these arc commonly used in furniture making because they have proven their value. As one venerable master cabinet maker told us, These must be good, because we have been working on them for 6.0(H) years.

Organization of trades and manufacturing

In 1803, Sheraton could say that the furniture trade was 'one of the leading mechanical professions in every polite nation in Europe'. It is still often considered that the so-called 'Industrial Revolution' brought furniture-making into a factory situation during the nineteenth century, which, combined with the use of machines, dramatically changed the way furniture was made over the period. This is not the case, although there were undoubtedly some changes. The enduring nature of the trade and its attitudes to change were such that new methods were only espoused if they contributed to profitability. Technological change was not necessary while the older ways met the demand. This is not to say that factories did not exist, simply that there was no dramatic change from one system to another it was rather a gradual process that is still not really complete. major feature, and confirmed the separation of maker and seller. In France, the trade was centred on Paris, often with businesses...

Organization of trades

Eighteenth century furniture-making was characterized by the variety of crafts that were the constituent parts of the trade carvers turners joiners chairmakers and fancy chairmakers cabinetmakers clock-case makers japanners turners gilders looking-glass and picture frame-makers and upholsterers. The success of many businesses is exemplified by the description from 1747, when it was said in a General Description of all Trades that ' many of their shops are so richly set out they look more like palaces, and their stocks are of exceeding great value'. An example of the entrepreneur-maker was the business of Thomas Chippendale, first recorded working in Long Acre. By 1753 Chippendale had opened a workshop in Saint Martin's Lane, London and in 1754 he had published A Gentleman And Cabinet-Maker's Director. This was to be one of the most influential pattern books published in the period. Among other designer-makers were Vile and Cobb from Saint Martin's Lane. Between 1759 and 1763 the...

Trade practice tools and techniques

The qualities of furniture-making still depended on the skill of the joiner, who began The ardent desire of tradesmen to maintain differentials resulted in the London Court of Aldermen (in 1632) deciding that carpenters should be restricted to making nailed and boarded work and that only joiners could use glue, mortise and tenon and dovetail joints. It was this process that divided the joiner's craft into those who fitted up rooms, for example with panelling, and those who would be called cabinetmakers. By the second half of the century the cabinetmaker was supreme, one of the earliest references to a 'cabinetmaker' being in Samuel Pepys's diary in 1664. The increasing division of crafts and trades continued with chair makers, cane chair makers, japanners, turners and other crafts, developing their specialities. Drawer construction is a reference point for the skill of cabinetmakers, and drawer development is related to the rise of the cabinetmaker (Figure 1.12). The frames were...

Other Georgeian Types

List, the reader will naturally wonder what was being done during the period with which we have just dealt by designers other than those whose names have been accorded prominence in these pages. It will be readily understood that Chippendale, Heppel-white, and Sheraton were not by any means the only men employed in designing and making furniture during the time of the Georges, and, on that account, some may assume that other distinct and historic styles may have risen in this country under the earlier rulers of the House of Hanover, and call for our attention but I may say at once that such is not the case.

Duncan Phyfe And The Artistic Influences Of His Time

Duncan Phyfe (1768-1854) was born in the days of the great eighteenth-century furniture makers in the Age of Cabinet-makers, as it has sometimes been called. In France, the reign of Louis XV and the Pompadour had seen the supremacy of the minor arts upheld by the great b nistes and cizeleurs. These men enlisted the services of the most distinguished designers, painters, and sculptors of the day in the perfection and enrichment of the gorgeous furniture which filled the royal ch teaux and those of the nobility. The craftsmen who later lent distinction to the work of the reign of Louis XVI, and of the post-revolutionary epochs of the Directory, the Consulate, and the Empire, were being trained in this school of noble design and of perfection in execution whose standards they carried on into the early nineteenth century. In England, Thomas Chippendale was at the height of his popularity and the designs in his Gentleman and Cabinet Maker's Director were still undisputed in their...

Surface decoration and finish

The Art Deco period (1910-30) was instrumental in incorporating unusual and exotic materials in furniture decoration and finish. In addition to exotic woods, such as Macassar ebony, burr walnut and amboyna, cabinetmakers incorporated mother-of-pearl, ivory, snake-skin, sharkskin (shagreen or Galuchat), leather, vellum, brass and lacquer into their repertoire of novel materials. There was a revival of Oriental lacquer decoration in the period, particularly with the work of Eileen Grey and Jean Dunand. The twentieth century is unique in the wide range of opportunities that furniture-makers have had in the making, decoration and finishing of their furniture.

Step Deliberately Raising the Grain

Because this isn't possible on open-grained woods such as oak and chestnut, furniture makers for ccnturies, have used fillers on these woods. The purpose of the filler is to fill the little craters and valleys on the surface, leveling it completely before the final finish coat is applied. Fillers are not used on woods with naturally smooth surfaces.

The Dovetailed Drawer

The dovetailed drawer has long been the hallmark of quality, hand-crafted furniture. And for good reason A dovetailed drawer is both beautiful to look at and strong enough to last 200 years. But dovetailing a drawer is not the daunting task you might think all it requires is a little know-how and practice. No matter what size drawer you're building or what piece of furniture it's going into, the techniques are the same. If you can build a

Shop Environment Is The

I was still wet behind the ears as a furniture maker, I once built a tabletop that shrank so much against the breadboard ends that it cracked. For a long time I have relied on empirical methods that I'm sure past cabinetmakers also used. Diy wood feels warm, and produces more crumbly plane shavings than wetter wood. For thick stock, I drill into a waste section to see if the borings seem diy.

Design and construction

During the early part of the sixteenth century, tenon-jointed frames, pegs and dowels were used to make the panelled construction that was in general use. This had been introduced from Flanders in the fifteenth century. The frame and panelling technique could be either left open for chairs, stools or tables, or enclosed with the panels for wall covering, boxes, chests and settles. During the sixteenth century the development of the true constructional mitre allowed the mouldings to be pre-cut on the stiles and posts before assembly rather than being cut like masons' mouldings over the true joint. Thus the basic techniques of making were established and would serve the joiner well, until the advent of the cabinetmaker in the later seventeenth century.

Leeds Design Workshops

Learn woodworking and furniture design. the blocks, they should pull the top down firmly. You'll need a block at each corner and three blocks evenly along each long side. Don't put the corner blocks right up against the legs. Fasten the top permanently in the center of each end by putting a screw at an angle through the apron into the top. The top will move the same amount on each side of the screw. Tage Frid is a retired cabinetmaker and professor emeritus at the Rhode Island School of Design.

Repairing William And Mary Underbracing Table

William And Mary Furniture

ALTHOUGH there are some interesting things to be recorded in reference to American-made furniture, so far as the student of styles is concerned, the whole may be covered in a single chapter. Not that American furniture was unworthy, but the styles followed those of the mother-country so closely that there is no separate process of development to be noted. With a few noteworthy exceptions the Windsor chair, the furniture of Duncan Phyfe, and the styles of the so-called American Empire period an understanding of the English styles, as already outlined, would furnish a working knowledge of American furniture styles. More often the name is given to all old American furniture up to 1840. One finds it particularly applied to nineteenth century or American Empire furniture, to describe something that is not Chippendale, Hepplewhite, or Sheraton. All of which is careless, erroneous, and misleading. Obviously, the only proper use for the word Colonial is to distinguish the products of the...

Hidden compartments for special seasonings

Furniture With Hidden Compartments

Traditional Furniture Projects 45 Alex Krutsky is a part-time instructor at the North Bennet Street School and a member of Fort Point Cabinetmakers, a cooperative shop in Boston. Mass. For further reading, see The Pennsylvania Spice Box by Ellen Griffith. Chester County Historical Society. West Chester. Pa. 19380-, 1M6.

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Ornamental Chippendale

Thomas Sheraton, who commenced work some 20 years later than Chippendale, and continued it until the early part of the nineteenth century, accomplished much excellent work in English furniture. The fashion had now changed instead of the rococo or rock work (literally rock-scroll) and shell (rocquaille et cocquaille) ornament, which had gone out, a simpler and more severe taste had come in. In Sheraton's cabinets, chairs, writing tables, and occasional pieces we have therefore no longer the cabriole leg or the carved ornament but, as in the case of the brothers Adam, and the furniture designed by them for such houses as those in Portland Place, we have now square tapering legs, severe lines, and quiet ornament. Sheraton trusted almost entirely for decoration to his marqueterie. Some of this is very delicate and of excellent workmanship. He introduced occasionally animals with foliated extremities into his scrolls, and he also inlaid marqueterie trophies of musical instruments but as a...

Elements of the Shaker Style

Craftsman Case Molding

I grew tip in a house hill of Danish modern furniture, which was, it turns out, heavily influenc ed by Shaker designs. Like the Danish furniture makers, I fell under the sway of Shaker furniture the moment I discovered it in my case, during a slide lecture 111 an architecture appreciation course I took in college. lie simplicity and utility of the furniture I saw in the slides stunned me. In the late 1970s, I began restoring Shaker furniture, and much of my own work has been in the Shaker vein ever since. I very seldom reproduce slavishly, but you can look at my work and without batting an eye see its derivation is Shaker. The doors on early Shaker pieces usually had raised, fielded panels. Over time, howevet, the raised panel fell out of favoi, perhaps because it appeared too decorative or possibly because the shoulder was seen as just another dust collector. In any event, the flat panel ultimately replaced the more traditional raised panel as the first choice of Shakei cabinetmakers...

Keepall scaled down to fit any room

Joining Rail Stile Construction Corners

Although all of my pieces are original designs, they are influenced by my fascination with the work of the itinerant cabinetmakers of the mid- 1800s. These builders understood the limitations of their tools and materials their design solutions reflected these limitations, resulting in many one-of-a-kind pieces. The honesty of their work, Traditional Furniture Projects 65

Woodworking materials

It is a smaller tree and was probably not extensively used for timber production. This species has many defects such as knots and is usually found protecting desert villages from drifting and wind-blown sand. Willow, Salix safsaf, is also found in Egypt and was used in a limited way to make furniture. A fragment of a Ninth Dynasty coffin made from sidder, Zizyphus spina-christi, has also been identified at Kew, as have a number of pieces of sycamore fig, Ficus sycomorus, which date from the Eleventh Dynasty through to the Graeco-Roman Period.

Provincial Crner Cupboard

The simplicity of this one-piece walnut and riftsawn yellow pine cupboard suggests that it was made by a country craftsman at Tuckahoe shortly after the plantation was built in 1712. Tuckahoe, now a national historic landmark, is noted for its architecture and furnishings, so it's not surprising that a cabinetmaker working there would have tried to make the cupboard special. Later, as the cabinetmakers' art flourished in America, corner cupboards were embellished with more intricate moldings, bracket feet and delicately framed glass doors. While it's impossible to know exactly how the original maker went about constructing the piece, I think that this practical worker might have made the shelves, bottom and top first, then simply nailed or pinned the two sides and back center piece to them. This formed a rigid skeleton to which the rails, molding and doors could be added. Even though the cabinetmaker used nails (you can feel them if you insert a thin knife between the shelves and...

Asymmetrical Balance

Seen from the front, we are symmetrically planned, although there are minor variations in the shapes of shoulders, ears, and so on. Similar variations of a minor nature are permissible and even desirable in furniture design. In the desk of Figure 50, articles placed on the desk top vary the purely symmetrical plan. The modern furniture designer, depending as he does upon shades and shadows produced by spaces and masses, needs both lighter and darker tones to complete his balance and to distribute tones in such a manner as to augment the thrust pattern. Thus, in Figure 50, Plate 6, dark bands balance masses of shadow and distribute darks throughout the design to accentuate the horizontal thrusts and to advance

David Day and Albert Jackson

Albert Jackson Woodworking

There is little doubt that making your own furniture can be a rewarding experience Seeing a finished piece in its correct place in your home and knowing that it is 'all your own work' is a real pleasure. But there is one important proviso. It has to look good Most of us have seen pieces of furniture, usually designed with the home maker in mind, which lack all grace and delight and which, however well constructed, have that tell-tale amateur look We have tried to put together a range of furniture which has that touch of class which lifts it above the commonplace. and which is nevertheless within the range of the home furniture maker All the furniture in this book has been designed by professional furniture designers, who have provided detailed step-by-step making instructions for each of the projects, together with tips and ideas which they have picked up from years of making furniture by hand. In addition, Nick Frewing's section Timber, Tools and Techniques' gives you all the...

Georgian Chair Styles

Georgian Chair

English furniture of the early Georgian and tran- no It was not until Chippendale's time that the Georgian period may be said to have really begun. From that time on the Dutch elements passed away, and English furniture styles passed through periods in which the French rococo of Louis XV, Chinese and Gothic elements, and finally classic and Louis XVI features became successively paramount. Thomas Chippendale began to work obscurely during the latter part of the reign of George I, making walnut furniture in the transition styles, but it was not until 1735 or later that the real Chippendale began to emerge and the Georgian period was firmly established. Chippendale was the dominant figure in English furniture design for a quarter of a century, or up to about 1770. The first edition of his book of designs, The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director, appeared in 1753, and the third edition in 1762. He impressed his personality on the styles of the period more than any other designer of...

Repair Chipped Plywood

HOW TO REPAIR Bentwood chairs, BENTWOOD the runners on FURNITURE many rocking chairs, and other furniture with parts made by bending rather than cutting the wood, offer a particular challenge. It is difficult to make bentwood replacement parts without the steam and water facilities used to bend wood in furniture factories. In addition, bending wood is an art in itself and requires knowledge and experience. Making the equipment and learning the trade is neither cost nor time-effective for the average person, who needs only to repair a single chair or rocker. A nearby furniture maker or repairman may agree to make a new part, but for most people, such facilities aren't available.

Sample Script Furniture Arranging

When I was a child, I was often greeted with a new arrangement of our living room, dining room, or bedroom furniture when I came through the door after school. My mother had mastered the most inexpensive method for gaining an interior design impact she knew how to successfully place furnishings. It was cheap, and it was easy, and she took full advantage of the facts. She rearranged the furniture several times a year

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How To Sell Furniture

How To Sell Furniture

Types Of Furniture To Sell. There are many types of products you can sell. You just need to determine who your target market is and what specific item they want. Or you could sell a couple different ones in a package deal.

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