Cheeks: the exposed and cut faces of a joint.

Double cove seat: seat that has four curved seat rails.

Green timber: wet and unseasoned wood.

Heartwood: the heartwood lies under the sapwood and its cells are hard and do not contain sap. It is usually stable and less likely to decay and is used for furniture construction.

Sapwood: the sapwood surrounds the heartwood and its cells transport water and minerals from the ground to the branches and leaves.

Sawpit: a deep pit over which is placed a framework of wood which supports a timber log, which is sawn, with a long two-handled saw by two men. One man stands in the pit and the other above on the framework.

Shakes: if the timber is felled or seasoned incorrectly then defects such as shakes develop. These are splits which open into holes across or along the grain.

Slash sawing: the log is sawn into boards along its axis. This conversion process is also known as through and through cutting.

Tangential shrinkage: when a log is slash-sawn it is cut at a tangent to the growth rings. Cupping or deformation of the board occurs because it does not dry uniformly across its width.

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