The use of animal-based glues was not known until the Fifth Dynasty. The glue was made by boiling the skins and bones of animals in water and allowing the solution to evaporate, leaving a concentrated viscous adhesive. In an illustration in the tomb of Rekhmire at Thebes a carpenter

17. Carpenter applying hot glue with a brush to veneer, Eighteenth Dynasty. (After Davies, The Tomb of Rekh-mi-re at Thebes, New York, 1943, plate LV).

is applying hot glue from a stone vessel with a brush to a strip of veneer (figure 17).

Wooden dowels (and, in the Eighteenth Dynasty, large gold studs) were used to hold joints together as the glue was allowed to set. Nails and small tacks, cast from copper and precious metals, were also commonly used to hold various covering materials in place.

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