Various Tools Of The Sixteenth Century

  1. A hammer-head. The tang is bent. 31. G 'Uge. Wooden handle missine.
  2. A carpenter's fat bowl. 32. A chisel (chyssel). Wooden handle missing.
  3. Gouge. Wooden handle missing. 33. An oil-stone (whetting-stone).
  4. Ditto. Rijks Museum, Amsterdam.

The original Poor Law relief was inaugurated, not only to relieve those who were unemployed, but also those who wele engaged in work, but could not live on the wages which the}' earned.1 During the nineteenth century, to bring our present enquiry up to date, arose the custom of the poor seeking doles from the back doors, or kitchen regions, of the wealthy houses, in the shape of cast-off clothing, stale loaves, fragments of joints of meat and dripping, and, in many country villages even as late as 1SS0, this custom of begging was not regarded as disgraceful in any way. Regular attendance at the village church was imposed, as a condition, on the recipients of this charity.

Some reference must be made, in this chapter, to the tools and methods of preparing timber, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, but the subject is too wide to permit of more than a brief description.

It is unnecessary to illustrate the felling of timber, nor to deal with any other wood than oak, as this was exclusively used in the early periods. The branches having been lopped from the trunk, with the axe, those of growth suitable for cutting into "" knees," for timber roof-braces, being carefully reserved for such use, the log is taken to the saw-pit for cutting. In Fig. n, to

1 SeeinThorold Rogers' " Six Centuries of Work and Wages," Chapter XIV, the account of the Speenhamland Acts of 1795 and 1S00 introduced by Mr, Whitbread.

Fig. 17.
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