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ordinary uncleanliness of person in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and to the prevalence of plagues. In 152S and 1529 the visitation was known as the " Great Mortality," and it ravaged the Continent as well as England. Over 1100 person-died in twenty-two days in Hamburg alone. The plague came again, and for the last time, to England, in 1665. It is more than probable that the conditions, cited above, had to be coupled with a famine year, to allow of its propagation 011 an extensive scale, and famines were very rare during the later Middle Ages.

Workers in wood appear to have been divided into three classes during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. We have the King's craftsmen, who were paid at a higher rate, although it is probable that they were more in the nature of directors than general workers. Thus in 1358, June 6th (Patent Rolls), ?J°lm de Tidolave is appointed to carry out certain repairs in the King's Castle of Haddeleye, " by view and disposition of Master \\ illiam de Herland, the King's carpenter " to take the necessary workmen and carriages for the work, at the King's wages, " to stay therein as long as shall be necessary and arrest all those found contrariant and commit them to prison till further orders."

From the above it is evident that the King's carpenter had summary powers to collect men for the King's

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