Sixteenthcentury Tools

7. Iron pincers. n, 12/13, M- iG, 17 and iS. Files and Rasps.

8, 9 and 10. Compasses (a "compas"). 15. An awl (a pricker'

From the Barend Expedition. Rijks Museum, Amsterdam.

In 1684, at Warwick, with wheat at 42s. o]d. (to cite Thorold Rogers again) skilled artisans are paid is. per day, free-masons (equivalent to our modern piece-masters) is. 4d. and plasterers 8d. The winter pay is id. per day less. The day is one of 12 hours, from 5 in the morning to 7 or 8 o'clock p.m., according to the season. From this is allowed half an hour for breakfast, one hour fornonschenes, one hour for " drinkings," and, between May and August, half an hour for sleep.

The yearly store, which in 1495 was purchased with fourteen weeks' wages, in 1690 costs £14 us. 6d., and the skilled artisan's wages are only £15 13s. ocl. and those of a farm hand are about £10 8s. od. or less. In 1725 the artisan's wages are £15 13s. od. per year, but the cost of the 1495 subsistence standard is £16 2S. 3d.

From 1805 to 1830 the wages of a skilled woodworker were insufficient to support himself, a wife and two children even on the most meagre scale. Pauperism, which is unknown in the fifteenth century, and only begins to be noticeable at the. latter end of the sixteenth, now begins to be the rule rather than the exception.

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