Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling

property during their history, and Bishop Grandisson, 1338-70, was their great benefactor. At this period the Priests and Choristers numbered twenty-four. Bishop Oldham, 1507-1522, appears to have made some additions to the " Common Room," and the linenfold panelling, which is illustrated here in Figs. 292 and 293, probably dates from his time. The stone mantel in the Hall is certainly earlier, and may be the work of Bishop Brantingham, 1370-1394. There are indications that the. mantel has been taken apart and rebuilt, probably when Hugh Oldham's alterations took place. Above. Bishop Oldham's linenfold panelling is an elaborate tier of arcaded and carved woodwork, with the royal arms placed in the middle of the flank facing the gallery, and on two cartouches the date, 1629, is carved. There are many evidences of later and very ignorant restorations in the Hall. This is especially noticeable in the case of the exceptionally rich bulbous-leg table which stands at this end of the room. Reference will be made

OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FORMERLY IN A HOUSE ON THE OLD QUAY, \ ARMOUTH.

Uated Lord Rochdale.

OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FORMERLY IN A HOUSE ON THE OLD QUAY, \ ARMOUTH.

Uated Lord Rochdale.

to this again, in a later chapter dealing with the development of tables. There are also indications that the cutting through of the archway has shorn the Hall of some of its former proportions, and the gallery has been brought forward into the Hall and doors of later date adapted. The panelling is very interesting, and exceptional in being a literal representation of the folding of soft linen, as compared with other examples which we have considered, where the effect is that of starched or stiff material. The upper series of arcaded panels are true to their period, that of the first years of the reign of Charles I. That the Hall originally possessed a gallery is highly probable, but if so, the original panelled or balustraded front has disappeared. The present Stuart panelling has been cut and adapted on more than one occasion ; at the time when the new gallery was formed, and also at a late date. The stone chimney-piece is of early-fifteenth-century character, similar in type, but not so rich in detail as those at Tattershall (see Fig. 298).

1mmur

THE PLASTER CEILING OF THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 317

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 317. THE CARVED PANELS OVER THE MANTEL.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 317. THE CARVED PANELS OVER THE MANTEL.

In the same way as with the staircase, the chimney-piece acquires a size and dignity towards the end of the sixteenth century, which it had not possessed, previously. The problem of the warming of churches in the fifteenth century, and earlier, does not appear to have been attempted at that period. These churches possess 110 fireplaces, nor any signs that such ever existed. Portable stoves were unknown, unless we except cressets or braziers, which, if used, must have been totally inadequate, and we can only assume that our fifteenth-century ancestors endured extremes of cold, in sacred edifices, to which we, at the present day, are totally unaccustomed. Even in early monastic refectories and large halls, fireplaces, where they exist, are nearly always of later date.

With timber houses, fireplaces and stacks of chimneys were the rule, but the ust al fire opening was supported by a brick or stone arching, and an oak beam or bressomer. This constituted the domestic mantel up to the middle of the sixteenth century. These chimney-beams were often well carved, cambered to prevent sagging, and finished above with panelling either especially enriched, as in the example from Tollcshunt Major,

THE OAK-PANELLED " NELSON " ROOM, FORMERLY IN THE STAR HOTEL, GREAT YARMOUTH

i jqj-idco,

Fig. 282, or matching that of the room as in Fig. 260. The ear® carpenters had a high opinion of the fire-resisting qualities of oak. These beams are seldom, if ever, protected from the direct action of the tire, and in those which have persisted to our day, beyond a mere surface charring, the timber has remained as sound as it was when it was worked.

Four examples of these carved fireplace lintels are given in Figs. 294 to 297. The first is from a house in Market Street, Lavenham, of the late fifteenth century. Fig. 295, from Moke-by-Xayland, is later, and is squared to rest upon the brick or stone jambs in the early-sixteenth-century manner. Fig. 296 is from Paycockes, Coggeshall, a house built about the year 1500 by Thomas Paycocke, a wealthy merchant and great

Thomas Paycocke

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM WITH INTERIOR PORCH, FIG. 320

1595-1600. 2S2

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM WITH INTERIOR PORCH, FIG. 320

1595-1600. 2S2

benefactor to the /»bey and the Church in the closing years of the fifteenth century. The lintel illustrated here is shown in situ, in Fig. 260. It bears the initials T.P. in the central shield, and it is, therefore, original to the house.

The Abbey of Coggc shall was founded by King Stephen, and was one of the thirteen houses of the order of Savigny, the whole of which joined the Cistercians in 1147. Opinions are divided as to who was the last abbot at the Dissolution in 1536. Some authorities give Henry More, whereas llorant states that William Love was thPabbot at this date. Tolleshunt Major, or Beckingham, was a part of the Abbey property.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320.

1595-1600.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320.

1595-1600.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320. THE MANTEL.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320. THE MANTEL.

Fig. 324.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320. DETAILS OF THE OVERMANTEL.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320. DETAIL OF PANELLING AND PILASTERS.

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320. DETAIL OF PANELLING AND PILASTERS.

Details Panelling

THE OAK-PANELLED ROOM, FIG. 320. THE INTERIOR PORCH.

Fig. 327.
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