In the possession of Ralph Seddon, Esq.
covered with black shagreen,* left in the rough state. The knives in use at this period were of the kind known as " pistol handle " or " hanger blade." Examples of the knives and forks of 1760-75 are shown in Fig. 26. As hall-marking was not compulsory, and was subject to a duty, it is rare to find the silver ferrules stamped with anything beyond the maker's mark, and a certain index of date is therefore usually absent.
With the introduction of sparkling wines, a further adjunct to the sideboard, the " sarcophagus," came into vogue. Fig. 27 is an example, and although these
* Shagreen, shagrin, from the Turkish saghri= the back of a horse, is of two kinds, and prepared in several ways, (i) A leather or parchment, prepared from the hides of horses, asses, or camels, without tanning. The pieces are softened by immersion in water, and alter being cleared of liair, are spread on a fiat table and covered with the seeds of the " Goose-foot" (Chawpodium album). A layer of hard felt is then laid on top and the seeds pressed into the skin by trampling or weights, which results in a peculiar granular finish. Shagreen is dyed green with sal-ammoniac and copper filings, red with cochineal, and black with logwood and lamp black. The kind referred to above has a small grain, and is left in this state. (2) The skin of the shagreen ray, KajaJuUonica, found off the northern coasts of England and Scotland. It is covered with minute spines, and after it is glued to the article it is intended to cover, the spines are filed smooth and then glass-papered. In its natural state this variety of shagreen is of an ivory shade, and takes a good polish after friction with oil and "rotten-stone.'' It was rarely used in the eighteenth century.
«AHOGANY SIDE TABI.E.
In the possession of Messrs.^B & Reigate. 0 ft. 6 ins. long x 3 ft. o ins. deep x 3 ft. I in. high.
sarcophagi became very usual pieces of furniture during the first years of the nineteenth century, they were rare in 1760-70. In this piece the wood is hard mahogany, with bands and ringed lions' heads of brass. The interior is lead lined, to hold bottles in ice.
Fig. 28 is an important mahogany side- 1 board of this date, with a f^^Bl^fc^
iliF"1 ui'i ih iflUMi bunches of grapes. The I ^^vym top is veneered with K IwOw mahogany-', banded with Mfl|j cross-cut rosewood and edged with a corner line ■
of satin wood. The frieze B____j j is banded with sycamore. This table is one of a pair, made for a dining-room of very large dimensions, and probably intended to act as a side table in conjunction with a pedestal sideboard. The workmanship is of fine quality, although the top is veneered on pine, but this was quite usual in the furniture of this period.
The furniture designed by the brothers Adam, or made under their supervision, appears to fall naturally into three classes. In the first we have the true Adam work, distinguished by a - satinwood and enamelled cabinet.
cold classical feeling and ln the pnssessi0„ of Messrs. Colling & Young, an air of state rather 4 ft- 9 ins. high x 2 ft. 9| ins. wide x . ft. 2 ins. deep than nf comfort. In the second may be placed the wholly or partially painted or enamelled furniture, decorated with the Adam ornament and medallions of classical figures in the manner of Cipriani. This may be described as Pergolesi furniture rather than Adam, although the latter is distinctly the creator of the style. In the third category must be placed the Adam designs as rationalised and modified by Hepplewhite and his school. This class merges gradually from the Adam to the true Hepplewhite furniture, and it is difficult to lay down any invariable line of demarcation.
Fig. 29 is a good example of a " Pergolesi " cabinet. The bookshelves and the framing of the doors are veneered with East India satinwoocl of exceptional figure. The door panels are finished with a ground of white enamel and decorated with medallions flanked with Grecian sphinxes, and surrounded by typical Adam ornament, painted in green and blue. The carved members of the turned stump feet are gilt, and the
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