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The firm has indisputably existed since the reign of William III., and certainly possesses many unique records. Robert Gillow, a joiner of Great Singleton, in the parish of Kirkham-in-the-Fylde, removed to Lancaster somewhere about the year 1695, and established the house of Gillow there. In 1728 he was made a freeman of Lancaster, a term which had quite another significance to that which it possesses at the present day. Trades were divided into guilds, which were exceedingly autocratic in their regulations, affecting both apprentices and masters. An apprentice, after he had served his time, could apply for his Cl freedom," without which he could not work as a journeyman. The latter term had also a real meaning at this date : an apprentice could not roam ; he was tied to his master by indentures, the form of which, curiously enough, has hardly altered even to the present day. By the terms of these he undertook to serve his master diligently, to obey him in all lawful commands, not to frequent brothels, gaming-houses, or places of low entertainment. In some forms his duty was defined even as far as his religious belief and the particular observances relating thereto were concerned. The master, in his turn, undertook to house and feed the apprentice, to teach him his trade, and sometimes, although rarely, to pay him a small wage after some years. By an

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