LAXGLEY, BATTY, Designer. Published " Practical Geometry," ^1726 ; " New Principles of Gardening," 1728-; " Sure Guide to Builders," 1J2.() ; " Young Builder's Rudiments," 1734 ; " Ancient Masonry," 1736; " Designs for a Bridge at Westminster," 1736 ; " Builders' Com-plcal Assistant," 1738 ; " Treasury of Designs," 1740 ; " Builder's Bench-mate," 1740 ; " Builders' Director," 17(17.
LAXGLEY, BATTY & THOMAS. Published " Ancient Architecture," 1742; " Builder's Treasury of Designs," 1745 ; " Gothic Architecture Improved," 1747.
LEON1, G., Architect, d. 174b. Published " Architecture of Palladia," 1st edition 1715, 2nd edition 1721, yd edition 1742 ; " Architecture of Alberti," 1 st edition 172b, 2ml edition 1755.
LEWES, J. Published " Designs in Architecture," 1780.
LOCK & COPELAXD. Published "Ornaments," 1st edition 1752, 2nd edition 1768.
LOCK, MATTHIAS, Designer. Published " Six Tables," 1746 ; " Book of Tables, &c.," 17(18 ; " SixSconces," 1768 ; " Pier Frames, &c.," 1769 ; " New Book of Foliage," 1769.
MAXWARING, ROBERT, Cabinet-maker. Published " Carpenters' Compleat Guide," 1765 ; " Cabinet and Chair Makers' Best Friend," 1765 ; " Chair-makers' Guide," 1766.
MILTON, COLUMBANI, CRUNDEN & OVEK-TON. Published " Chimneypiece-makers' Assistant," 1766.
MORRIS, R., Architect, d. 1770. Published " Defence oj Ancient Architecture," 1728 ; " Architecture Improved," 1755.
NEWTON, W. Published " Civil Architecture of Yitruvius," 1791.
NICHOLS, J. Published " Antiquities of Lambeth Palace," 1782.
NICHOLSON, P. Published " Principles of Architecture," 1795-8.
NOLLEKENS, JOSEPH, R.A., Sculptor, b. 1737, d. 1823. There is some evidence in the Adam drawings in the Soane Museum, that he worked for Robert Adam.
OAKLEY, E. Published the " Magazine of Architecture," &c., 1731.
OVERTON, T. C. Published " Designs for Temples," 1766.
PA1XE, JAMES, Architect, d. 171b. Published " Plans of Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Houses," 1767-70, 2nd edition 17S3.
PAINE, W. Published " Builders' Companion," 1 st edition 1761, 2nd edition 1765, yd edition 1769 ; " Practical Builder," 1774, 2ml edition 1793 ; " Carpenters' Repository," 1778.
PAINE, W. & J. Published "British Palladia," 1786.
PASTOR1N1, B., Designer. Published " Designs for Girandoles," 1775.
PERGOLES1, MICHEL AXGELO, Decorator. Published " Designs," 1777.
RICHARDS, G. Published " Palladia's First Book of Architecture," 1721.
RICHARDSON, ('.., Designer. Published "Five Orders of Architecture," 1787 ; " Neic Designs in Architecture," 1792 ; " Designs far Country Seats and Villas," 1795 ; " Ceilings," 177'), 2nd edition 1793 ; " Chimney Pieces," 1781 ; " Designs for Tripods, &c.," 1793.
RIPLEY, T„ Architect, d. 1758. II'¿(S part architect of Houghton Hall.
SALMON, W. Published " Poly graphic a, ar the Arts of Drawing," \th edition 1701 ; " Palladia Lun-doniensis," 1743.
SHEARER, HEPPLEWHITE cV OTHERS, Cabinetmakers. Published " London Book of Prices," 2nd edition 1793.
SHEARER, T., Cabinetmaker. Published " Cabinetmakers' London Book of Prices," 1788 ; '* Designs for Household Furniture," 1788.
SHERATON, THOMAS, Cabinet-maker and Designer. Born at Stockton-on-Tees about 1750. Died in London 1S06. Published "Cabinet-makers' and Upholsterers' Drawing Book," 1 st edition 1791, 2nd edition (2 vols.) 1793, 3rd edition 1802 ; " Cabinet Dictionary," 1803 ; " Cabinet-maker, Upholsterer and General Artists' Encyclopedia " (projected in 125 folio numbers, but never completed), 1 st part only, 1804.
SOANE, Sir JOHN, Architect. Donor of the Soane Museum in Lincoln Inn Fields to the Nation. Published " Designs in Architecture," 1778 ; " Plans and Elevations of Buildings," 1788 ; " Sketches in Architecture," 1793.
STALKER & PARKER. Published "A Treatise on Japanning, &c.," 1(388.
SWAN, ABRAHAM, Archited. Published "Staircases," 1st edition 1745, 2nd edition 1750 ; " Designs in Architecture," 1757; " British Architect," 1758 ; " Designs in Carpentry," 1759-
TATHAN, E. H. Published " Examples of Ancient Architecture," 1794.
TAYLOR, Sir ROBERT, Architect, 1714-1778.
VANBRUC.H, Sir JOHN, Archited, 1O66 -1716.
WALL1S, N., Designer. Published " Book of Ornaments," 1771 ; " Compleat Jovner," 1772.
WARE, ISAAC, Architect, d. 1760. Published " Rookby Hall, Yorks," 1735; " Designs far the Mansion House," 1737 ; " Palladio's Architecture," 1738 ; " Designs of Inigo Jones," 1743 ; " Complete Body of Architecture," 1756 ; " Kent and Ripley's Designs for Houghton Hall," 17O0.
WOOD, J. Published " Origin of Building," 1741.
WOOD of Bath, Architect, 1754-1782.
WOOD, R. Published " Ruins of Palmyra," 1753.
WOOLFE it GANDOX. Published " Yitruvius Britannicus," vol. v. 1771.
WREN, Sir CHRISTOPHER, 1632-1723.
WRIGHT, W. Published " Grotesque Architecture," 1768.
WYNNE, Capt. WILLIAM, Architect, d. 1705.
HE position occupied by the brothers Robert and James Adam is an unique one in the history of English eighteenth-century furniture. The)' differed from the joiner-architects such as Batty Langley and Halfpenny, in being architects purely and simply. In one respect, however, their influence was infinitely more far-reaching, as regards the furniture of their time, than the united efforts of Wren, Kent, Ware, Gibbs or Hawksmoor. These architects had confined their attention almost entirely to buildings and interior decoration ; such furniture as William Kent, for instance, designed, can be so styled only by straining courtesy to the breaking point. It may be said with strict justice that these architects, when they turned their attention to furniture, discovered an utter lack of knowledge of the principles of construction in wood, and the possibilities and limitations of such embellishments as caning, inlay or upholstery. In the matter of ruling the furnishing fashions of their time they were far more favourably circumstanced than the brothers Adam. The trade of the joiner had not even commenced to attain the importance which it afterwards assumed in the hands of men such as Chippendale, Ince, Hepplewhite and Sheraton. The architect was not only the most important, he was the only factor to be reckoned with in the building and the furnishing of the mansions which were erected at this date. When the brothers Adam came into prominence, however, Chippendale, and probably Hepplewhite, were already independently established, and it bears striking testimony to the character of Robert Adam that he was enabled to superimpose his style on one as well founded as that of Chippendale.
Robert Adam, the leading spirit of the combination, was born in Kirkcaldv in 1728. He was one of four brothers, John, Robert, James and William, and the son of the master mason of Edinburgh, William Adam, who was a fairly distinguished architect in the Lowlands. John Adam succeeded to the father's business on the death of the latter in 1748, and William probably assisted him in the office.*
Roman architecture had, from the first, an overpowering fascination for Robert Adam, and in after life became the dominating factor in the evolution of the style
• The four brothers were afterwards associated in business in London. See the chapter on the Adelphi Lottery later on.
associated with his name. The usual idea, that he borrowed his inspiration from French sources, is entirely erroneous ; the only styles which at all approach his in dignity, the Empire and Directoire, are of later date. The superficial resemblance which might be thought to exist between the style of Robert Adam and the Louis Seize disappears on examination. The latter is essentially suitable for small rooms; it becomes utterly puerile when applied to lofty apartments of large size. With the work of Adam, although the detail is delicate and sometimes even finicking, the large scale and dignity of his massing and the value he gives to empty spaces, redeem it from any such charge.
Fired with this admiration for the classicalism of Rome, Robert Adam, in 1754. started on his grand tour, and for three years he travelled incessantly and sketched assiduously, in France in the latter part of 1754, Italy in 1755, and lastly Rome itself in the following year. In 1757 he decided to thoroughly explore the ruins of the palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Venetian Dalmatia, and in July he started from Venice in company with Charles Louis Clerisseau. The result of five weeks of diligent sketching and measuring was incorporated in the folio volume entitled the Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia, which was published in 1764, price £3, 10s.* The engravings were executed by Bartolozzi from the sketches of Adam and Clerisseau. Some difficulty appears to have been experienced with the Governor of Dalmatia, and at the outset Adam and his companions ran some risk of being arrested as spies had not influence from another quarter intervened.t
In 1758, Robert Adam was back again in England, and firmly established, as between this year and 1762 date the designs for the Admiralty screen and most of the work done at Sion House for the Duke of Northumberland. Practically the whole of the original sketches of both Robert and James Adam have been preserved, and may be seen at the Soane Museum, by the courtesy of the curator. From these we can gather that James Adam probably accompanied his brother on his Italian tour, and he was certainly in Venice in 1760, and in Rome two years later, together with Clerisseau and the painter Antonio Zucchi, the latter of whom was responsible for some of the decorative work at Lord St. Oswald's Yorkshire home, Nostell Priory, some three years later.
* It is worthy of note that as early as 1764, in the sub-title of this work, Robert Adam subscribes himself " F.R.S., F.S.A., Architect to the King and to the Queen." The preface is in the usual form, a classical address to the King. There are printed the names of 499 English and 26 foreign (chiefly Italian) subscribers, 525 in all, taking 571 " setts" (from which we can infer that the work was first issued in part form). There are many illustrious names in the list, from which can be gathered some idea of Robert Adam's connection with the nobility at this early date in his career. Thus the Earl of Shelbnrne takes five " setts '' ; the Duke of Argyll, two ; the Right Honourable John, Earl of Bute, ten (the last two, fellow-countrymen of Adam) ; and John Balfour, bookseller (presumably another Scot), ten "setts" (? as a speculation). Zucchi, afterwards husband to the unfortunate Angelica Kauffmann, engraved many of the plates in the book.
t I'iilc Robert Adam's own account in the book of the circumstances attending the explorations and measurements.
In 1762, Robert Adam was appointed architect to the King, a favour due to the patronage of Lord Bute, and which subjected the brothers to some scurrilous abuse from the pamphleteers of the time, who at this date represented what is now known as the " power of the press." In 1768 he was elected to Parliament for the borough of Kinross. Of the more notable works of the brothers may be mentioned the Adelphi, Portland Place, Spring Gardens, some of the streets off Bond Street, the older part of Gower Street, Bryanston Square and one side of Portman Square. Fitzroy Square, and many of the houses on the eastern and southern sides of the Regent's Park, and one or two in Soho Square, are further examples. Of the more noted mansions may be mentioned Osterley Park at Isleworth, a seat of Lord Jersey; Shelburne (now Lans-downe) House ; Kenwood, the Hampstead mansion of Lord Mansfield ; Sion House ; Gawthorp, afterwards Harewood House; Montagu House; and Lord Scarsdale's magnificent mansion, Kedleston. The interior work, decoration and furniture, designed by the brothers Adam, and executed with the assistance of Pergolesi, Cipriani, Angelica Kauffmann, Zucchi, Placido Columbani and Chippendale, can be seen at Nostell Priory, Wakefield ; Harewood House, between Leeds and Harrogate ; Osterley Park, the Isle-worth seat of the Earl of Jersey; and at Kenwood in Hampstead Lane.
In 1773, the first folio part of the Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam, Esquires, was published, the work appearing at intervals until 1778. A posthumous volume was published in 1812. The plates, 125 in number, were engraved 011 copper, carefully prepared from drawings now preserved in the Soane Museum, and comprised exteriors of buildings and designs for decoration and furniture.
Robert Adam died in 1792 at 13 Albemarle Street, and was buried in the south transept of Westminster Abbey. James followed his brother two years later, dying in October 1794, and like him, he remained a bachelor to the last. William Adam, the fourth brother, lived until 1822.
The name of the brothers is closely associated with the present-day compo-work, of which they were the pioneers in England. This composition was a mixture of whiting, resin and size, which was amalgamated when hot and allowed to cool to the consistency of dough. It was then pressed into moulds (usually carved in boxwood, but sometimes cast in a plastic mixture of earthenware), which were greased beforehand, and the base of the ornament having been cut level with a knife, the mould was removed and the composition affixed either with glue or with small panel pins. As a substitute for carving, this composition had the advantage of cheapness, and when strengthened with wire behind, the pendant swags, so characteristic of the work of the brothers, were made possible, and of sufficient toughness to withstand even rough usage. The dis-
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