Carved and inlaid. Height, 2 ft. ; width, 2 ft. 4 ins. ; depth, 9 ins. First half of the seventeenth century.
H. Clifford Smith, Esq.
result to compensate for the time involved, yet the capitals, bases and neckings of the Chinnor and Southacre screens seem to imply either lathe-turning, or remarkable accuracy in the fashioning by hand.
In the early lathes the wood was " chucked " in the modern way, but the actual revolution wasftffected by a grooved wheel fixed to an outer prolongation of the right-hand shaft of the chuck. A bow with a loose string of gut was then wound once completely round the wheel, and the operation of drawing the bow smartly backwards and forwards, caused the wood to revolve. This bow-work was the province of the " bow-boy," the wood-turner's apprentice in his first year. Watchmakers at the present day sometimes use the same method for very small lathes. The cranked foot-lathe appears, however, early in the seventeenth century, but it is doubtful if the slide-rest, for spiral turning, was known before the middle of the eighteenth century, as many, if not all, of the " barley-sugar " twistings of the Restoration chairs are undoubtedly fashioned by hand from the plain turned shafts. The pole-lathe is of very early origin, and is used, to this day, in some country districts, especially in Buckinghamshire.
Lathe-turning loses its novelty in the early seventeenth century, but spindles and columns remain a very favourite device for many years. Often these balusters are split, and applied to flat surfaces as decoration, as we have seen. Many examples of this work will be noted in the illustrations to other chapters both in the earlier and in the later part of this book.
Towards the middle of the seventeenth century a number of small cupboards
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