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Late fifteenth century. Victoria and Albert Museum.

OAK PANEL. OAK PANEL.

OAK PANEL. OAK PANEL.

I3i ins. high by 10 ins. wide. 13J: ins. high by 10 ins. wide.

Early sixteenth century.

Victoria and Albert Museum.

OAK PANELS.

Early sixteenth century. Victoria and Albert "Museum.

OAK PANELS.

Early sixteenth century. Victoria and Albert "Museum.

the probable national kinship of the three pieces. Chests with inlay, that is, with various coloured woods chopped into the solid ground, as distinct from marqueterie where the inlay is cut into veneers and both laid either with the veneering hammer or the caul, are not uncommon in England towards the middle of the seventeenth century. In Fig. 51 will be noticed one of late Charles I period, where the pilasters are inlaid with flagged towers, in somewhat similar fashion to the chests illustrated in Figs. 47 and 48. The turned feet are additions. A chest of this kind would probably be fitted with a cut-out plinth taking up the line of the moulding-breaks at the base. The arcades of the panels and the pilasters are carved with a flat veined running guilloche, in the East Anglian manner. Chests of this kind are frequently' of uncertain nationality'. They were extensively^ imported from Holland, which was the home of marqueterie up to the later

seventeenth century. It must not be assumed, however, that imported marqueterie from Holland necessarily resembles what we know here in England as Dutch inlay. There is no doubt that craftsmen in Holland made, especially for the English market, many of the inlaid long-case clocks of 1690-1710; although quite in another fashion to that current in Holland,- -as labels, which may be occasionally found inside the trunk-doors, attest.

It may be advisable, at this juncture, to leave the consideration of these late sixteenth and early seventeenth-century chests and to explain how it is possible, in a general way, to assign localities of origin, as well as dates, to many of the examples illustrated in the preceding and the following pages. We have a fairly sure, but not an infallible index of origin, in pulpits from the late fifteenth century onwards, as we know, as a rule, these would not be removed from the church for which they were made, once they were fixed. Unfortunately, the theory that these are always of local manufacture is not tenable ; some of the Kentish woodwork in churches, even in villages well removed from the Thames, is not indigenous, but bears many indications of Essex or Suffolk

Jlid-sixteenth Century. W. Sraedley Aston, Esq.

Jlid-sixteenth Century. W. Sraedley Aston, Esq.

Fig. 45. PANEL OF OAK CHEST.

Fig. 45. PANEL OF OAK CHEST.

Mid-sixteenth century. Victoria and Albert Museum.

Height, 2 ft. ii ins. ; width, 4 ft. 1 in. ; depth, 1 ft. yi ins.

circa 1560. Victoria and Albert Museum.

origin. Certain districts must have been renowned for their woodworking skill and style, particularly in the Gothic period, and workmen from these places would be called upon to provide such articles as pulpits, screens, benches and the like, if a church contemplated refurnishing by reason of added revenues or some unexpected bequest. This would not apply to the fifteenth century, and before, as woodwork in churches of that date bears many indications of being of local make and design, coupled with a friendly rivalry between neighbouring villages in the adornment of their parish church. Pulpits were by no means general, in English churches, in the fourteenth century, and none prior to 1330 are known to exist. At Fulbourne in Cambridgeshire is one of this date, but it is, apparently, unique. Examples from the end of the fourteenth century are

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