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By arranging the mouldings around fiat panels so as to produce forms with a broken outline the stiff rectangular panel is avoided. Three varieties are shown on Plate XIV.

Bookcases, china cabinets, and others of the same class of case work have portions of their sides glazed either with clear glass or mirrors.

In the best of glazed work plate glass is used, but where something less expensive is wanted the best quality of double thick sheet glass is used. Anything poorer than this should not be placed in good work. Mirrors should always be of plate glass. Glass set in doors or substituted for panel work is cut the full size of the rebate opening in the frame and is held in place by a loose moulding the same as a panel. Plate XIV. It is only when some special condition requires it that the glass is secured in place by putty and glaziers' points instead of the loose moulding.

Mirrors are not often cut to the full size, but are a trifle smaller than the rebate measure and the glass is held in place by a number of triangular blocks about three inches long placed at intervals in the rebate. These blocks serve to wedge the glass securely in place that it may not slide in the rebate, and they also reduce to a minimum the surface of wood in contact with the coating on the back of the mirror.

The silvering is protected from injury by a panelled back board screwed to the frame after the glass is fastened in. This backboard must not touch the mirror at any point.

The glass is held in front by a moulding set in a rebate, as we have described for panelling.

Doors arc composed of a framework enclosing panels. The uprights of the frame are the stiles and the horizontal parts arc the rails. They are hung either with hinges or pivots. The former are more or less visible, but the latter are concealed. Plate XV. illustrates various applications of these methods, No. i shows the door hung with butts and without a rebate for the door to shut against. Such a door would be used in cabinets where the uninterrupted joint between the edge of the door and the side of the case is not objectionable. Notice also that unless the door can swing through an arc of i8o° the width of the opening is reduced by about the thickness of the door; or A in the illustration. In most instances a rebate to receive the door is desirable; and still the door hung with butts would reduce the size, of the opening as at A, No. 2, unless the rebate is as deep as the door is thick. No. 3.

Doors ior cabinets having drawers within are hung this latter way, as it enables one to pall out the drawer though the door is open at the right angle only. No. 4 shows how a door may be hung when the design calls for a pilaster on the corner of the case and yet the conditions require that a maximum width be given to the interior. An article having the door hung in this manner must stand sufficiently away from the wall or other pieces of furniture to permit the pilaster to turn on the axis of the hinge.

The pivot, pin, or center hinge is invisible and iri high-class work this is an advantage. It is also strong, and is screwed to the upper edge of the top rail, and the lower edge of the bottom rail of the door in a position such that a strain does not start the screws. The illustration shows what it is like. There are two bars of metal narrow enough to be entirely concealed bv the thickness of the door. In one of these bars is a hole receiving a pin, on the other bar. One of the bars, that with the socket, is set in the frame receiving the door, the other is 011 the door itself, and when complete the door turns on the pin as an axis.

It is well to set the pivot on a line through the middle of the thickness of the door; and about half the thickness of the door, plus an eighth of an inch, away from the post against which the door turns. That is, C » B + £ inch. No. 5 shows a pivoted door in a position where it reduces the width of the door opening, and No. 6 shows the pivoted edge of the door turning in a hollow prepared for it and provided with stops against which the edge of the door strikes either when open or shut.

The thickness of door rails is dependent entirely on the size and design of the door; but the bottom rail is made a little wider than the top rail and side stiles which are of the same width.

The meeting stiles of a pair of doors are sometimes rebated, so the joint does not extend straight through.


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