articles in the room and of similar nature. For example, if other tables or chests in the room are 42 centimeters deep, the left side of the chest must conform. Let us, then, adopt 42 centimeters as a hypothetical depth. With the foreshortening triangle placed on the top edge of the T square and following the procedure of Method One, page 31, create the left side of the volume, which should measure 76 by 42 centimeters full size, or 76 by 42 millimeters reduced size. If you so desire, check the ratio at once by dividing the lesser dimension into the greater. You will see that the quotient is 1.81, satisfying the requirements for proportionate variety and subtlety.

Step By your eye, and following Method Two, page 32, check off a length for the right side, using your sense of proportioning and judgment regarding lengths for the drawers, although the exact planning of the latter need not be clearly seen at this phase of volume planning.

In Figure 42, Plate 5, the lines of the volume have been completed and our impression is this: The right side evidently is too long for a unified volume. In other words, the volume is "stretched out" so far that the attention does not comprehend the right, left, and top sides as one volume.

Even in this overlong condition, it is interesting to check the sides by arithmetical methods, and, for this purpose, the volume has been redrawn in Figure 43. By bringing the volume down to the line of measure by our foreshortening triangle, we can measure the sides, preferably by the metric system as a timesaver.

The front vertical is arbitrarily established at 76 millimeters, the left side is 42 millimeters wide, and the right side is 143.6 millimeters. Summarized and reduced to their ratios, they present the following:

Left Side 76x42 mm Ratio 1.81

Right Side 76x143.6 mm. . . .Ratio 1.81 Top Side 42x143.6 mm Ratio 3.42

By the squaring or geometric method of checking, it is seen that the left side is composed of a square plus .81 of a square, for the square always counts as one, or unity. By measuring the height on the line of measure, BD, and transferring the dimension to the right vertical side, we note one square plus .81 of a square, exactly similar to the left side and proved both by the arithmetical and geometrical methods. By checking off the width of the left side on the line of measure, Figure 43, as BCy CE, EF, and carrying the lines to the top, it is found to consist of three squares and .42 of the fourth square.

Analyzing the situation, this is where the cause of dissatisfaction rests: In a large piece of furniture, horizontal in character, and with drawers which will make the volume seem longer, it is advisable to shorten the volume. The attention may be held to a tall, vertical mass; but, in horizontal masses, the attention is apt to move away from the volume, and the volume loses our complete attention and so suffers in aesthetic value. Later on we shall find various devices, like grouping and thrusts, to aid in holding attention; but, with present knowledge, the volume will be shortened.

By trial and error, several volumes are sketched until one, labelled "Final Choice/' Figure 43, and, for illustrative purposes, redrawn in Figure 44, is selected, which, if desirable, may be analyzed as follows:

Left Side 42x76 mm Ratio 1.81

Right Side 76x1 21 mm Ratio 1.59

If it is more convenient to translate these dimensions into feet and inches, a quick and approximately correct method is to secure a meter stick with inches on the reverse side, and, remembering the scale of one mm. equals one cm., locate the measurement in centimeters and, by reversing the stick, read

56 Creative Design in Furniture the dimension in feet and inches, with the following results:

Right Side 29%"x47i/£". . . .Ratio 1.59 Top 471/2"xity*"____Ratio 2.87+

Step 4. In this step, Figure 45, we are introduced to the system for orderly space and mass planning, namely by space and mass divisions, shown in the form of light lines traversing and cutting the volume in varied proportionate divisions but related to it. In modern design, these divisions have structural justifications and add to the feeling significance of the volume.

First sketch in the major divisions as the shelf and the bottom color band. Naturally the shelf functions better at brought into order. For the child's convenience in replacing them, the drawers will be made the same size; although educationally there may be an advantage in varying their sizes

Figure 48. Major Space and Mass Plans for a Child's Cabinet the top and is so located. Check the mass to be filled with drawers as a whole or unit. Compared with the shelf and color band, are the results monotonous or are the spacings equal? Are certain major divisions too small for the others? These points are matters with which your sensitivity to mass and space adjustment has to deal.

Figure 48. Major Space and Mass Plans for a Child's Cabinet

Step 5. The drawers represent minor divisions in this increasingly complex situation which must be and so letting the child make some specific drawer fit into its proper place.

And so, while the drawers are to be equal in size, we can make them proportionately related to the mass which is to contain them. Note the diagonal of Figure 45 and the obvious and familiar method by which the nine drawers are similarly proportioned to each other and to the central major division. For similar proportions, refer to Figure 40, Plate 4.

This step completes the space and mass pattern with the shelf occupying space, while the band and drawers represent mass. At this point, we are not concerned with the final appearance of the chest as these factors enter into the Form Stage of progress; but, for satisfaction associated with knowing what the final result will resemble, we have appended Figures 46 and 47, modified isometric, with side and front views of the finished project.

A variation of this design is illustrated in Figure 48. In this pattern, space has been removed from the volume to form a ledge or shelf for toys, with the major divisions shown in Figure 48. In Figure 49, the minor divisions are indicated, locating such structural parts as additional shelf space, lockers and possible drawer space, all constituting minor mass and space divisions based on the space and mass main or major divisions of Figure 48. Note the proportioning problems in the proper allocation of all working or functioning parts. For convenience in converting fractions to decimals and millimeters to inches, see pages 154, 155.

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