ready facing, either by thin sheets of metal, glass, bakelite, or similar materials.
The console of Figure 121 has two concealed shelves as indicated by the dotted lines, while the high chair of Figure 122 should be constructed with brazed joints. Long-curved tubing resting on the floor must have projections, as in Figures 121 and 122, particularly if any tendency towards rocking is noticed.
The enrichment features of the console and stool rest mainly in their construction plus accentuation and glitter inherent in the materials themselves. The movement towards the use of flat metal construction shown in Plate 16 seems significant of a move towards rectangular cross-sections in metal construction, which may have a marked bearing on furniture for home uses.
As styles move on, as new methods and new uses for old materials emerge, we see the advent of bent wood construction. By virtue of its process of formation, bent wood must have curves; its construction allows extensive piercing of the volume. Combine these factors and you have the air of graciousness and lightness so characteristic of bent wood furniture. With these characteristics, this type of furniture functions well in the recreation room, on the large porch, or the out-of-doors terrace and garden, and improvement in design may qualify it for the living room.
Figure 123, Plate 16, gives the design in its final or form stage; while Figure 124 shows the volumetric mass with its proportionate relationship problems, indicating the design process by which Figure 123 was planned. Another small constructive detail, a method of joining bent wood rails and legs, is depicted in Figure 127; while the steam chest is available for bending forms.
Figure 125, Plate 16, will suggest many ideas for chair con-
Form and Scale, miscellaneous projects in varied materials.
RG. 128. BAKELITE BASE JHMS y \ BAKELITE « MOLDED PLASTIC AND TOP. ALUMINUM IVORY SUPPORT. MAINLY-
SHEET OVER WOOD. ^^gP^ BLOCKED OUT ENRICHMENT® BLOCKED-OUT ENRICHMENT. . FIG. ISOo PARCHMENT AND ENAMELLED WOOD LAMP. OXIDIZED ALUMINUM TRIM FOR BASE. SURFACE AND BLOCKED-OUT ENRICHMENT.
fig. »34. desk trough lam pi copper and wood«
struction in bent wood. As shown, the cushion has been removed. New forms such as this are evolved by new uses of material; they are far removed from the traditional, and supply the motives for creative effort. As you will note, the arm curves of Figure 125 must be in subtle relationship to the horizontal motive of which they are a part.
Bent wood and a metal cross brace form the supports for the table of Figure 126, Plate 16. An enameled wood top gives the glitter and gayness latent in this design, while a small, sharp groove with a strip of color enriches the whole pattern. The usual treatment of the bent wood strip is to leave it in its natural color, but the texture must be pleasing and free from splinters.
In his book on Industrial Arts Design the author placed major emphasis on contour enrichment for the traditional furniture considered in that book, particularly William and Mary or Queen Anne, which were strongly emphatic in their contours. In contemporary art, contour design, at least to a great extent, has been supplanted by proportionate beauty and surface or plastic enrichment. There seems, however, to be a gradual trend towards more emphasis on the contours as a means of enriching form; and, in bent wood furniture, the bending process brings added emphasis on contours, especially noticeable at turning or bending points. In metal furniture, the bends likewise add a contribution to contour emphasis; in fact, metal tubes are the contours.
For both bent wood and metal, the same contoural principle is applied. If possible, never use arcs of circles in contours and never make a bend exactly in the center of a mass or a space division. Try for subtlety of curvature and use your design ability in starting and terminating your bends to give as much variety as is possible under structural conditions. Again, try to make your curves sweep with the major thrust of the volume, or the space within the volume containing the curve; otherwise, design principles advanced within this book apply equally to curves of the contoural or outline types. Plates 14, 15, 16, have examples of contour enrichment, the direct outgrowth of materials and processes of construction. All metal and bent wood furniture must have one or more prominent masses to give contour construction the feeling of permanence and solidity.
Plate 17 illustrates materials grouped into interesting combinations, in the spirit of the modern. The candlestick of Figure 128, Plate 17, with its plastic, shallow enrichment of receding planes has a trig smartness, as does the lamp of Figure 130. Plastics are becoming available for craftsmen and may be shaped in various ways, an example being the base for the pewter ash container of Figure 129.
Figures 131 and 132 present simple and similar problems for beginners. The copper paper cutter of Figure 132 may be oxidized, with the oxide removed at the points indicated. Figure 133 indicates modern trends in clocks. A small, discarded alarm clock is used for operating the hands, although a new set of works is preferable.
The tilting desk lamp of Figure 134 is illuminated by a tubular bulb readily purchased at most supply houses. Figure 135 is an indicator of the tendency towards indirect lighting to be located on the end of a desk or table.
All designs should first be planned within a well-considered volumetric casing and developed by modified isometric, as specified for wood design.
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