Various types, shapes, gauges and sizes of wire springs are available, providing differing degrees of resilience and suitability for use in different locations in furniture. The three major types of springs are compression, tension and arc. Compression springs were patented in Vienna in 1822, and in England in 1828. They are available in double cone, single cone, barrel and drum shapes. Tension springs were introduced into the UK by W. Knoll around 1930. Arc springs are variously known as sinuous, serpentine and zigzag (c.1930). Webster and Parkes (1845) describe coil springs as 'elastic iron wire', being used extensively for easy chairs and seats of various kinds. Loose springs are manually built by the upholsterer into units or supplied preformed in strips or units.
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