Principles of cleaning

  1. 1 Preliminaries
  2. 1.1 Cleaning objectives
  3. 1.2 Examination
  4. 1.3 Pre-cleaning checklist
  5. 1.4 General approach
  6. 1.5 Cleaning tests
  7. 1.6 Dirt
  8. 1.7 Removal of varnish or overpaint
  9. 2 Mechanical cleaning
  10. 2.1 Dusting
  11. 2.2 Cleaving
  12. 2.3 Abrasives
  13. 2.4 Dry cleaning methods
  14. 3 Solvent cleaning
  15. 3.1 Classes of solvents that may be encountered in

459

furniture conservation

505

459

Hydrocarbon solvents

505

459

Chlorinated hydrocarbons 509

460

Alcohols

510

460

Aldehydes and ketones

510

Ethers

511

461

Esters

511

465

Organic nitrogenous

465

compounds

511

468

11.3.2 Physical properties of

470

solvents

512

470

Evaporation rates, vapour

471

pressure and density

513

473

Viscosity

513

474

Surface tension and

capillary action

514

476

Toxicity

514

476

Flammability

515

480

11.3.3 Solubility

515

Process of dissolution

515

481

Solubility parameters

518

Predicting solubility

518

481

Solvent removal of varnish524

482

Mixing solvents

525

482

11.3.4 Proprietary paint strippers526

483

11.4 Chemical cleaning

527

488

11.4.1 Introduction to acids and

489

bases

527

489

11.4.2 Ka and pKa

528

489

11.4.3 Acids

529

490

11.4.4 Bases

529

490

11.5 Aqueous cleaning

529

490

11.5.1 pH and aqueous cleaning531

491

11.5.2 pH buffers

532

Choosing a buffer

532

494

11.5.3 Ionic concentration/

495

conductivity

533

495

11.5.4 Soaps, detergents and

496

surfactants

534

496

Detergents

535

496

Emulsions and hydrophilic

497

lipophilic balance (HLB)

499

numbers

535

Critical micelle

500

concentration (CMC)

536

501

Choosing a detergent

539

501

Residues and rinse

501

procedures

540

503

11.5.5 Chelating agents

540

503

Formation constants

542

504

Effects of pH and

conditional stability

constants

543

  1. 5.6 Enzymes 548
  2. 5.7 Blanching and blooming 551 11.6 Thickened solvent delivery systems - pastes, poultices and gels 552
  3. 6.1 Controlled vapour delivery 553
  4. 6.2 Gelling materials 553 Clays 553 Cellulose ethers 554 Polyacrylic acid (Carbopol) 556

Bibliography 557

12 Principles of consolidation, aesthetic reintegration and coatings 560

  1. 1 Basic principles 560
  2. 1.1 Making solutions 561

Concentration 561

Molar solutions 561

Dilution 561 Measuring small quantities without a balance 562

  1. 2 Consolidation 562
  2. 2.1 Introduction to consolidation treatment 562
  3. 2.2 Penetration of consolidant and reverse migration 563
  4. 2.3 Consolidation of wood 563 Materials used to consolidate wood 564
  5. 2.4 Consolidation of painted and decorated surfaces 566 Traditional vs. modern materials 567 Materials used for the consolidation of decorative surfaces 567 Application techniques 571 Flakes, cups, tents and blisters 572 Facing 573
  6. 3 Aesthetic reintegration 574
  7. 3.1 Fills 574 Introduction to filling 574 Fill materials 576
  8. 3.2 Retouching 578 Introduction to retouching 578 Light, colour and metamerism 579 Materials for retouching 582

Making paint tablets 585 Commercial preparations 586

  1. 4 Coatings 586
  2. 4.1 Introduction to coating 586
  3. 4.2 Saturation and gloss 587 Refractive index 588 Gloss 589 Molecular weight 589
  4. 4.3 Varnish formulation 589
  5. 4.4 Matting down varnishes 590
  6. 4.5 Stabilizers 592
  7. 4.6 Selecting a coating 593
  8. 4.7 Coating materials 593 Natural resins 593 Acrylics 594 Synthetic low molecular weight varnishes 595
  9. 4.8 Application methods for coatings 598 Brush application 598 Spray application 598

Bibliography 602

13 Conserving transparent coatings on wood 606

  1. 1 Introduction to transparent finishes 606
  2. 1.1 Photochemical oxidation and patina 607
  3. 1.2 Revivers 607
  4. 2 Cleaning 608
  5. 3 Selective layer removal 610
  6. 4 Surface blemishes 611
  7. 4.1 Dents and scratches 611
  8. 4.2 Watermarks 611
  9. 4.3 In-filling varnish losses 612
  10. 5 Colour matching repairs to varnished wood 612
  11. 5.1 Introduction to colour matching processes 612
  12. 5.2 Surface preparation 613
  13. 5.3 Materials for colour matching wood repairs 614 Precautionary measures 614 Bleaches 614 Addition of colour to wood repairs: pigments, lakes and stains 616
  14. 5.4 Grain fillers 620
  15. 5.5 Stoppings and filling materials 622
  16. 5.6 Colour matching methods 624

Binding media for

14.3.2 Surface preparation

664

colour matching

14.3.3 Applying the oil size

664

varnished wood

624

14.3.4 Applying gold leaf

664

Applying pigments

625

14.3.5 Coatings

665

Applying stains

625

14.4

Composition

665

Sealing coats

626

Bibliography

666

13.6

Treatment of degraded varnish

627

13.7

Application of coatings to

varnished wood

628

15 Conserving other materials I

667

13.7.1 Non-traditional materials

628

15.1

Ivory, bone and antler, turüeshell

13.7.2 Traditional materials

629

and horn, mother-of-pearl

667

Wax

629

15.1.1 Ivory, bone and antler

667

Oils

630

Cleaning

667

Natural resins

631

Staining

668

French polishing

633

Consolidation

669

Glazing

637

Humidification

669

13.8

Craquelure, crazing and

Adhesives

669

crocodiling

637

Replacements

670

13.9

Polishing or dulling a varnished

Staining ivory

670

surface

638

Polychrome ivory

670

13.10Distressing

639

Coatings

671

Bibliography

639

Antler

671

Repair and replacement

671

Introduction to traditional gilding

642

15.1.2 Turtleshell and horn

671

14.1

Background

642

Cleaning

671

14.1.1 Water and oil gilding

642

Consolidation

671

14.1.2 Tools for gilding

643

Replacing losses

672

14.1.3 Gold and metal leaf

646

Coatings

673

14.1.4 Surface preparation

647

15.1.3 Mother-of-pearl

673

14.1.5 Gesso putty

647

Cleaning

673

14.2

Water gilding

647

Consolidation

674

14.2.1 Conditions for gilding

647

Replacing losses

674

14.2.2 Size

648

Coatings

674

14.2.3 Preparation of glue size

648

15.2

Paper labels and linings on

14.2.4 Assessing gel strength

648

furniture

674

14.2.5 Sizing the wood

649

15.2.1 Labels

675

14.2.6 Gesso

649

Options for dealing with

14.2.7 Application of gesso

650

a label on furniture

675

14.2.8 Faults in the gesso

652

15.2.2 Paper liners

676

14.2.9 Smoothing the gesso

652

15.3

Metals

677

14.2.10 Decorative details

653

15.3.1 Introduction

677

14.2.11 Recutting

653

Patina

678

14.2.12 Yellow ochre

655

Removal of metal fittings

678

14.2.13 Bole

655

15.3.2 Cleaning

678

14.2.14 Laying the leaf

658

15.3.3 Removal of corrosion

14.2.15 Faulting

660

products

679

14.2.16 Matte water gilding

660

Mechanical removal of

14.2.17 Double gilding

661

corrosion products

680

14.2.18 Burnishing

661

Electrochemical and

14.2.19 Punched decoration

662

electrolytic reduction

681

14.2.20 Coatings

662

Chemical removal of

14.3

Oil gilding

663

corrosion products

682

14.3.1 Mordants for oil gilding

663

15.3.4 Rinsing and drying

682

15.3.5 Repairs

683

15.5.3 Painted and decorated

15.3.6 Replacement elements

683

glass

706

15.3.7 Application of coatings

15.5.4 Repairs to adjacent

after conservation

684

wood

707

Method of application

685

15.5.5 Removing glass

707

Preferential corrosion

685

15.5.6 Refitting decorated and

Coating materials for

mirrored glass

708

metals

686

15.5.7 Cleaning undecorated

15.3.8 Ferrous metals

688

glass

708

Patination of iron

688

15.5.8 Cleaning mirrored and

Mechanical removal of

decorated glass

709

corrosion products

689

15.5.9 Repair of glass

709

Rust converters

690

15.5.10 Consolidation

709

Chemical removal of

15.5.11 Restoration and

corrosion products

691

retouching

710

Coatings

692

15.5.12 Coatings

710

15.3.9 Brass and bronze

692

Bibliography

710

Stabilization

692

Mechanical removal of

16 Conserving other materials II

714

corrosion products

693

16.1

Stone and related materials

714

Chemical removal of

16.1.1 Marble

714

corrosion products

693

Cleaning

714

Stress corrosion cracking

693

Consolidation

716

Dezincification and the

Repair and reintegration

716

deposition of insoluble

Coatings

717

metal complexes

694

16.1.2 Scagliola

717

Reagents for the chemical

Cleaning

717

removal of corrosion

Consolidation

717

products

694

Fills

718

15.3.10 Ormolu

696

Coatings

718

Cleaning

697

16.1.3 Piètre dure

718

Removal of corrosion

Cleaning

718

products

697

Fills/losses

718

15.3.11 Silver

698

Coatings

718

Removal of corrosion

16.2

Plastics

719

products

699

16.2.1 Introduction to plastics

719

Reshaping

700

16.2.2 Cleaning

719

Prevention of tarnish

700

16.2.3 Adhesives and

Coatings

700

consolidation

720

15.3.12 Lead

700

16.2.4 Filling

721

Removal of corrosion

16.2.5 Retouching

721

products

701

16.2.6 Coatings

721

Coatings

701

16.3

Upholstery

721

Ceramics and enamels

701

16.3.1 Introduction to upholstery

15.4.1 Cleaning

702

conservation

721

15.4.2 Bonding

702

16.3.2 Ethics

722

15.4.3 Filling losses

703

16.3.3 Examination and

15.4.4 Retouching

703

documentation of

15.4.5 Enamels

704

upholstery

723

Flat glass, mirrors, reverse

16.3.4 Previous interventions

723

painted and gilded glass

705

16.3.5 Condition of the frame

724

15.5.1 Flat glass

705

16.3.6 Materials

724

15.5.2 Mirrored glass

705

16.3.7 Non-invasive treatments

725

Surface cleaning Semi-transparent coverings Case covers

Stabilizing with repairs Supports

16.3.8 Invasive treatments Removal and documentation Metal fixings Cleaning Supports

Reapplication of lined textiles

Storage for study as an alternative to reapplication Independent sub-frames

  1. 3.9 Rush, reed and cane Rehumidification Deacidification Repair
  2. 3.10 Imitation leather
  3. 4 Leather, parchment and shagreen
  4. 4.1 Leather Evaluating the surface of the leather Cleaning

Chemical stabilization

Consolidation

Infills

Backing materials Coatings

16.4.2 Parchment and vellum Cleaning

Repair and support Coatings

16.4.3 Shagreen Cleaning

Lifting edges and tears

  1. 5 Textiles
  2. 5.1 Cleaning
  3. 5.2 Loose and lifting linings
  4. 6 Painted furniture
  5. 6.1 Introduction to conservation of painted furniture
  6. 6.2 Cleaning
  7. 6.3 Removal of varnish Mechanical removal Solvents

Alkaline reagents

725

Aqueous methods Removal of synthetic

749

725

varnishes

751

726

16.6.4

Removal of overpaint

751

726

16.6.5

Consolidation

752

726

16.6.6

Reintegration

752

726

16.6.7

Coatings

752

16.6.8

Matte paint

753

726

16.7 Japanned furniture

753

727

16.7.1

Introduction to japanning753

727

16.7.2

Examination of objects

754

728

16.7.3

Cleaning

755

16.7.4

Removal of overpaint and

729

later varnishes

757

16.7.5

Consolidation

757

16.7.6

Infilling

758

729

Fills for grounds

758

729

Fills for papier mâché

759

729

Fills for japanned layers

759

729

16.7.7

Varnishes

759

730

16.8

Lacquered (urushi) furniture

760

730

16.8.1

Introduction and

730

definition

760

16.8.2

Handling lacquer

760

731

16.8.3

Distinguishing Oriental

731

16.8.4

lacquer from japanning Eastern and Western

761

731

approaches to restoration

732

and conservation

762

732

16.8.5

Cleaning

763

733

Potential problems

763

734

Removal of surface dirt

736

and accretions

763

736

Cleaning decorative

736

elements

764

737

Removing unwanted

738

coatings

764

739

16.8.6

Consolidation

766

739

Softening brittle lacquer

740

before consolidation

766

740

Flattening distorted

740

lacquer

767

742

Materials

767

742

Shell inlay

768

743

16.8.7

Infilling

768

16.8.8

Retouching

768

16.8.9

Restoring a degraded

743

matte surface

769

744

16.8.10

Coatings

769

745

16.9

Gilded furniture

770

747

16.9.1

Introduction to

747

conservation of gilded

749

surfaces

770

16.9.2

General care

771

16.9.8 Composition

776

16.9.3

Cleaning

771

16.9.9 Coatings

776

16.9.4

Removal of overgilding

773

16.9.10 Distressing

776

16.9.5

Removal of bronze

16.9.11 Toning

777

paint

773

Bibliography

777

16.9.6

Consolidation

773

16.9.7

Reintegration

774

Index

785

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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