As with many medieval trades, the superior craftsmen organized themselves into guilds. Furniture-making guilds were established for carpenters, carvers, gilders, joiners, turners, smiths and leather workers. One of the earliest was a turner's guild, established in Cologne by 1180, and in the late fourteenth century a menuisier's guild was founded in Paris, but the differentiation between 'furniture-makers' and carpenters existed, in France, well before the fourteenth century. Carpenters were responsible for large-scale structural work, whilst joiners developed techniques for exacting and accurate construction of interior furnishings. The trade of coffer-maker apart from making trunks and coffers was also responsible for the embryonic craft of upholstery.
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