Identification of leather and skin products

It may be possible to identify the type and maturity of the skin by examining various gross features including grain surface patterns and grouping and sizes of hair or feather follicles, or scale patterns (Haines 1981, 1985; Munn, 1989; Waterer, 1968). Also, different tanning and finishing techniques give leather its variety in appearance (Kühn, 1986). Under magnification, further identification can be made by examining cross-sections of the internal structure since skins vary in total thickness, in dimensions of fibre bundles, in weave patterns and in the ratios of grain to corium. Imitation leather such as polyvinyl-chloride can be identified macro-scopically or in cross-section (Haines, 1981; Thorp, 1990). Methods of analysis are available to determine tanning method used, fat and





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Figure 3.6 Simple woven structures of rush/reed/cane: (a) binder cane; (b) rush; (c) 4-way cane; (d) spline; (e) 6-way cane; (f) cordage moisture contents and acidity (Haines, 1985; Hallebeek, 1984; O'Flaherty et al, 1965).

For further information on skins parchment and leathers see Calnan and Haines (1991), Fogle (1985), Reed (1972), Sharphouse (1983), Stambolov (1969), Thomas et al. (1983), Thomson (1981a, 1981b, 1985), Waterer (1968, 1972), and occasional papers published by the Leather Conservation Centre in the UK and by Leather Conservation News in the USA.

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Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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