1800-1830 The fashion for classical purity was introduced from France by Henry Holland, developed by Thomas Hope in his Household Furniture and Interior Decoration of 1807, and popularized in the trade by George Smith's Collection of Designs for Household Furniture of 1808. Graeco-Roman ornament was precisely reproduced and Grecian chairs, with wide shoulder boards and sabre legs, became fashionable. Two new types of table are asso-
ciated with the early nineteenth century: the centre pedestal table and the sofa table. Smaller tables included quartetto table nests and work tables with pouches. Small writing tables abounded. There was also a return to fashion of longer dining tables. Sideboards gave way to large serving tables, and small bookcases with wire trellis doors became a feature. There were developments in the manufacture of metal bedsteads and campaign furniture and a craze for so-called patent furniture, which was often able to be converted from one use to another (Figure 1.19).
1840-1900 During this period two new chair designs were introduced: the balloon-backed dining or bedroom chair and the prie-dieu or kneeling chair. Various other furniture types were introduced including canterburies, chesterfields, chiffoniers, davenports and cosy corners.
From the mid-century onwards there was a growing variety of new and exciting furniture designs that were not slavishly copying traditional designs. This furniture, designed by architects, craftsmen or artists was gradually associated with the beginnings of the modern style. North America and most European countries were affected. In Britain the rise of 'Art Furniture' was initially encouraged by designers such as Bruce Talbert and E.W. Godwin, whilst the craftsman-designer was represented by Ernest Gimson, Lethaby and Barnsley. By the end of the century, Voysey and Mackintosh represented the new designers. In the United States, Herter Brothers, Associated Artists and Tiffany, Stickley and the Roycrofters, the Greene Brothers, and a little later, Frank Lloyd Wright all exemplified the new thinking.
In France the two schools of Paris (represented by Guimard, Gaillard) and Nancy (Galle, Majorelle) were style leaders by the end of the century. In Belgium Van de Velde and Horta were developing the Art Nouveau, whilst in Austria, the Vienna Secession (Hoffman, Moser, Olbrich, Loos, Wagner) were using modern geometric shapes. In Germany the Jugendstil was represented by Behrens, Endell, Riemerschmid and Pankok. Other more exotic designs were produced by Gaudi in Barcelona and Carlo Bugatti in Italy.
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