During the early part of the sixteenth century, tenon-jointed frames, pegs and dowels were used to make the panelled construction that was in general use. This had been introduced from Flanders in the fifteenth century. The frame and panelling technique could be either left open for chairs, stools or tables, or enclosed with the panels for wall covering, boxes, chests and settles. During the sixteenth century the development of the true constructional mitre allowed the mouldings to be pre-cut on the stiles and posts before assembly rather than being cut like masons' mouldings over the true joint. Thus the basic techniques of making were established and would serve the joiner well, until the advent of the cabinetmaker in the later seventeenth century.
Turning created some of the more elaborate chair forms during the sixteenth and early seventeenth century (Figure 1.6). The description 'turned all over' gives an indication of the design. These chairs, the work of turners, were different from traditional chair construction in that their joints were usually dowelled and pegged rather than mortised and tenoned.
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