Adhesives may occur in upholstered objects as a means of fixing one layer of the upholstery structure to another (in use of slab stock elas-tomeric materials for example); as a means fixing a material to a substrate (silk fabric to carved wood on a bed cornice or leather to a desk top for example) or to attach trimmings. They may also be found as dressings (to dust-proof a ticking material or to stiffen a buckram for example); as a finish to a cut raw edge of a fabric, to stop the weave unravelling; or used to set an embroidery, where they are applied to the back to prevent distortion caused by stitch tensions.
Glues derived from animal proteins include gelatine, skin glue (rabbit, scotch), fish glues, isinglass and casein. Vegetable-based glues include polysaccharide gums such as gum arabic or acacia gum, and vegetable mucilages such as starch. Synthetic glues include cellulose derivatives, hot melt polyamides and rubber cements. These materials may be applied by brush, gun or spray. For further details see Masschelein-Kleiner (1985) and Chapter 4.
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