First Type Of Cane Chairs

The first type is a continuation and refinement of the earlier turned chairs, the earliest form being similar to Figure 447 except for a panel of cane in the back and seat. This simple form was quickly superseded by the new form of chair with high seats and backs with carved crestings and front stretchers. The spiral turning was probably retained for some time, and the carving at first was on the wood and not cut to form the outline. The construction of this type was good. The cresting was mortised and tenoned into the uprights, thus giving the requisite strength for the stretching of the cane. Figure 448 is a good example of this new form. It will be seen that the spiral turning of the earlier period is still retained in the stiles and bracing. The cresting and front stretcher are carved in a design of acanthus leaves and cupids upholding a crown, a theme popular after the Restoration. The frame of the cane back is also carved in acanthus scrolls and rosettes. The legs are alternately spiral-turned and carved with roses and leaves. This chair belongs to the Tiffany Studios.

Figure 449 shows an example of a little later date. It will be seen that the Flemish scroll predominates. The sides of the frame for the cane are each carved in two Flemish scrolls, slit, and forming two volutes at one end; a conventional fleur-de-lis separates the Flemish scrolls. A similar design is carved on the front stretcher and the legs are in the form of the simple Flemish scroll. The cresting is composed of foliated C scrolls. This chair is the property of the writer.

Figure 450 shows a side chair in which the cresting, front brace, and sides of the frame for cane are carved in Flemish scrolls separated in each instance by a

Flemish Scroll
Cane Chair, Flemish legs, last quarter seventeenth century.

thistle or bunc h of thistles. The legs are in the form of the Flemish scroll, with an additional foliated scroll just above the lower volute, and the legs terminate in turned feet. This form of leg is called the elaborated Flemish scroll he tinials are carved to represent grotesque heads. On the back of this chair is branded the name "J. Newell," probably that of the maker. The chair is sup-

Cane Chair, Flemish legs, last quarter seventeenth century.

Cane Chair, Flemish legs, last quarter seventeenth century.

posed to have belonged to Judge Samuel Sewall, of witchcraft fame, and is now in the possession of the writer.

Figure 451 is a side chair q>"te similar in design to that shown in Figure 450. The cresting, front stretcher, and sides of the frame for cane are each carved in two simple Flemish scroll designs separated by conventional fleur-de-lis. I he legs are in the form of Flemish scrolls with an additional foliated scroll at the centre between the two volutes. The legs terminate in turned feet. This form of leg is another variation of the elaborated Flemish scroll and differs from the one shown in the preceding figure only in the placing of the foliated scroll. The seat and back of this chair were originally cane. It is the property of Mr. H. W. Erving.

Figure 452 shows a side chair in which the carved frame of the cane is a slightly different variation of the Flemish scroll, one section of the scroll being

Figure 452 shows a side chair in which the carved frame of the cane is a slightly different variation of the Flemish scroll, one section of the scroll being

Jacobean Flemish Scroll

Cane Chair, Flemish legs, last quarter Cane Chair, Flemish legs, last quarter seventeenth century. seventeenth century.

split into two separate volutes. The front brace is carved in the design of two C scrolls, instead of Flemish scrolls, separated by conventional fleur-de-lis. The legs are in the form of the elaborated Flemish scroll already described and shown in Figure 450.

Figure 453 is very similar to that shown in Figure 451. The cresting, the carved frame for the cane, and the front stretcher are identical. The legs on this chair, however, are turned down to the lower brace, and from that point there is a foot in the form of a unilateral S scroll with in-turning volutes. This chair belonged to Richard Lord, whose will was probated in Hartford in 1712, and the chair is now at the Connecticut Historical Society's rooms.

Figure 454 shows a side chair with the same style of foot as appears in the preceding figure. 1 he carving, however, is on the surface instead of formmg the

Bannister Chair Sixteenth Century

Figure 453. Figure 4;4,

Cane Chair, scroll feet, last quarter Cane Chaii, scroll feet, last quarter seventeenth century. seventeenth century.

Figure 453. Figure 4;4,

Cane Chair, scroll feet, last quarter Cane Chaii, scroll feet, last quarter seventeenth century. seventeenth century.

outline :n the manner shown in Figure 448. On the cresting is carved an eagle and foliated scrolls. On the frame for the cane back are also carved foliated scrolls and rosettes and the design on the front stretcher is the same. On the linials are carved grotesque heads similar to those in Figure 450.

Figure 455 shows an example of a chaii in which the si'iple C-scroll design predominates. All the turned portions are in the spiral-twist pattern. The cresting is composed of two scrolls with cupids upholding a basket of flowers. The frame for the cane is in the form of two long S scrolls, and two of the same scrolls finish the bottom of the back and form the front stretcher. I he legs, which are

Figure 456 shows an example of this type in which there are no Flemish scrolls. The turning is spiral and the cresting is carved in the design of two S scrolls with

Cane Chair

Cane Chair, last quarter seventeenth Cane Chair, scroll legs, last quarter century. seventeenth century.

Cane Chair, last quarter seventeenth Cane Chair, scroll legs, last quarter century. seventeenth century.

partly missing, are animals' claws with fur, crudely carved. This chair is the property of Mr. Dwight M. Prouty, of Boston.

Figure 456 shows an example of this type in which there are no Flemish scrolls. The turning is spiral and the cresting is carved in the design of two S scrolls with two cupids supporting three feathers. The cane panel in the back is oval and is in a frame carved in the design of two S scrolls separated by a rosette. The supports for the arms are S scrolls and the carved stretcher represents two S scrolls separated by three feathers. The legs are in the form of unilateral S scrolls. The surfaces of the scrolls supporting the arms, the legs, and the front stretcher are carved in acanthus-leaf designs. The edges of the seat rail are also carved. This chair is, of course, English.

Figure 457 shows a side chair of later date. The cresting is carved in the design of C scrolls, and at the centre was an inlaid star the inlay of which is

Figure 4158 illustrates a late form of the chair shown in Figure 4151. The only carving is on the cresting and is in the familiar design of the Flemish scroll. The

Flemish Chair

Cane Chair, Flemish legs, last quarter Cane Chair, turned legs, first quarter seventeenth century. eighteenth century.

missing. 'I he iinials are :n the form of acorns. The front stretcher is carved in a scroll design suggesting the Flemish scroll .'he legs are in the form of a Flemish scroll with an additional out-turn:-ig scroll above. The two last-mentioned chairs belong to the writer.

Figure 4158 illustrates a late form of the chair shown in Figure 4151. The only carving is on the cresting and is in the familiar design of the Flemish scroll. The

Cane Chair, Flemish legs, last quarter Cane Chair, turned legs, first quarter seventeenth century. eighteenth century.

frame for the cane is perfectly plain and a turned-front stretcher takes the place of the carved one. I'hc legs are tuined in a simple design. This chair belongs to Mr. II. W. Frving.

Figure 459, the property of the writer, illustrates a further diffeung type trom those under discussion. The only carv ing is on the cres1.ing and front brace. The design differs from that shown in the preceding figure in that it is composed of two C scrolls instead of Flemish scrolls, separated by the conventional fleur-de-lis. The design is similar to that shown on the front bracc of Figure 452. The back and seat were intended for upholstering, as the frame is heavy and unpierced.

Figure 460 shows a later variation of this type. The carved cresting has disappeared as well as the cane, and yet it clearly suggests the preceding design.

Figure 460 shows a later variation of this type. The carved cresting has disappeared as well as the cane, and yet it clearly suggests the preceding design.

Upholstered Chair, turned legs. Upholstered Chair, turned legs, about 1700. about 1700.

Upholstered Chair, turned legs. Upholstered Chair, turned legs, about 1700. about 1700.

Figure 461 is in the style known as banister-back, which is one of the late variations of the type under discussion. Split balusters take the place of cane or upholstery and the seat is made of rush. The carved cresting is in the design of two C scrolls separated by conventional fleur-de-lis, and the legs terminate in the Spanish scroll foot. Such chairs undoubtedly were made by local cabinet-makers in imitation of the cane models, but without proper material. This is the only form of the first type which has Spanish feet.

Figure 462 shows an arm-chair of this type. The cresting is unusually well carved, in the same design as in the last figure, ' he front legs, which extend to hold the arms, are tinned in the vase, ring, and hulh pattern and terminate in

Figure 462 shows an arm-chair of this type. The cresting is unusually well carved, in the same design as in the last figure, ' he front legs, which extend to hold the arms, are tinned in the vase, ring, and hulh pattern and terminate in

Spanish Colonial Furniture

Banister-Back Chair, first quarter eighteenth century.

Banister-Bick Chair, first quarter eighteenth century.

Spanish feet. The stretchers, -ncluding the back one, are also well turned. This chair >s -n the Bolles Collection.

Figure 463 shows an arm-chair in the same style as the preceding. The cresting of C scrolls separated by a fleur-de-hs is the same, and the front stretcher is in the same design, which is rather unusual, as banister-back chairs usually have the turned stretcher. The legs terminate in the ball feet which appear on six-legged high-boys and desks of the period. Another unusual feature is that it has five instead of four split balusters, one of them missing. This chair is also in the Bolles Collection.

Figure 464 shows another variation of the style. The cresting is almost invariably in the form shown in the two preceding figures, but it will be seen that this is an exception to the rule, for in this chair there are two foliated

Banister-Back Chair, first quarter eighteenth century.

scrolls, really portions of the Flemish scroll, the two sections joining at the centre to make a C scroll with foliations below. The legs terminate in unusually good Spanish feet, and the side stretchers are vase-and-ring-tumed the same as the front one. This chair is the property of Mr. G. W. Walker, of New York.

Another chair of this same general type, the property of Mr. Dwight M. Prouty, of Boston, is shown in Figure 465. The carved cresting is repeated reversed at the base of the back, otherwise the chair is very similar to that shown in Figure 461.

Another and later variation of the hanister-back chair is shown in Figure 466. Not only the cresting is carved but also the lower raif holding the balusters. It is a Pttle unusual to find two turned-front braces. The balusters are usually n the same designs as the stiles of the back, as in this example.

18th Cane Chair

Banister-Rack Chair, first quarter eighteenth century.

Banister- Rack Chaii, first quarter eighteenth century.

Banister-Rack Chair, first quarter eighteenth century.

Banister- Rack Chaii, first quarter eighteenth century.

A very unusual form of the banister-back chaii from the Bolles Collection is shown in Figure 467. The cresting consists of a pierced circle with a C scroll on either side, and below are two circular openings. I he linials of the stiles are acorns, and three small acorns are attached to the cresting. There are but three split banisters, and the lower rail of the back is cut in curves. I he front legs, at the point where the front stretcher joins them, are bulb-shaped, and the legs terminate in what were probably a form of Spanish feet but which are now considerably worn off. The legs of this chair quite closely resemble those on Figure 471.

A little later variety of banister-back chairs in which is but a slight suggestion of the type under discussion is shown in Figure 468. The cresting is cut in a curve as though the maker had a carved piece in mind. The balusters do not follow the general rule but are straight-grooved strips instead

Figure 467.

Banister-Back Chair, first quarter eighteenth century.

Figure 467.

Banister-Back Chair, first quarter eighteenth century.

of being turned and split. The chair belongs to Mrs. L. A. Lockwood, of Riverside, Connecticut.

Figure 469 shows one of the latest developments of the banister chair back. No suggestion of carving is anywhere to be seen and the balusters are plain grooved slats. This chair belongs to Mr. Albert H. Pitkin, of Hartford.

We have now traced the development of the first type of cane chairs to the point where they disappeared, and we have shown practically every style of leg

Colonial Furniture Plain

in which it is found except the unilateral Flemish scroll, of which the writer has been unable to iind an example in this country although he has seen a few in England.

We now take up the second type of cane chairs in the same manner.

Figure 46S. Banister-Back Chair, 1730-40.

Figure 46S. Banister-Back Chair, 1730-40.

Figure 469. Ban ster-Back Chair, 1740-50.

Figure 469. Ban ster-Back Chair, 1740-50.

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