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Ministry Letters

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Oak Cabinet Inlaid With Various Woods

Had ousted it from general favour, even in churches, was still followed, is shown by such examples as at St. John's, Henley-in-Arden, Fig. 52, and Bramford, Fig. 53, where the panel-details of tracery or linenfold are early sixteenth century in style, while the system of framing and the moulding-sections indicate almost the other end of the century. It is the Renaissance pulpits which are valuable for our purpose, as data for comparisons with secular furniture, as these pulpits were, as a rule, made in the height of the fashions current at the time. St. Nicholas Church at Ipswich has a pulpit, Fig. 54, of early seventeenth-century date and East Anglian or Home County in style. A comparison of this with the mantels from Lime Street, Figs. 332 to 335, Vol. I, and those from Eltham, Figs. 339 to 341, Vol. I, will show how the secular and the clerical examples corroborate each other. It is possible,- in fact, it is extremely probable, that a pulpit of this elaborate kind was made in...

Oakboarded Ceiling From A House At Lavenham

CHANCEL DOOR, NEEDHAM MARKET CHURCH. ELMSETT CHURCH, SUFFOLK. CHANCEL DOOR, NEEDHAM MARKET CHURCH. Among the important features of both timber houses and churches of the fifteenth century were the elaborate timber porches. In the latter these were often of the most ornate description, both externally and internally. The house porch was closed by a door at its entrance, hence the need for ornament in its interior was not so BARKING CHURCH,SUFFOLK, VESTRY DOOR. Fig. 209. KEY CHURCH, IPSWICH, PRIEST'S DOOR. BARKING CHURCH,SUFFOLK, VESTRY DOOR. Fig. 209. KEY CHURCH, IPSWICH, PRIEST'S DOOR. houses, as a rule, being in. Church porches, having were often embellished Boxford Church, Suffolk, ornate porch in England, Figs. 190 to 192. It dates fourteenth century, and is, for its antiquity as for its The roof is vaulted to the window openings are lions. Over the cambered signs of an original Saint's are still to be seen on the trefoil of the arched head. Suffolk porches...

Late Fifteenthcentury Coffer With Panels Of German

LAWRENCE'S CHURCH, EVESHAM - - 137 'flanders chest* in east dereham church, norfolk - 141 sixteenth-century chest in possession of seymour st. saviour's church, southwark . - - 150 the * offley chest,' st. saviour's church, southwark - 152 seventeenth-century almery in st. alban's abbey church 174 court cupboard, commencement of the seventeenth leg of table in dinton church. bucks - - - 2l6

Reading Desks Stands Wall Brackets and Frames

The use of the church reading-desk or lectern thus making turning the pages easy. Here as well as in the church-stalls, intarsia work and rich carving were usual as ornamentation. In those reading-desks meant for private use there was no need of tall and heavy bases, the sloping upper part, perfect in itself, was detachable from its socle, and could be used on a writing table1), or the reading-desk proper was supported by a tall column or a baluster (figs. 458 460). ') Such a one is depicted in one of Carpaccio's paintings (fig. 44) and on Ghirlandajofs frescoes, Botticelli's St. Hierony-mus and St. Augustinus, in the church Ogni Santi in Florence, and in Pinturicchio's Virgin Surrounded by Angels in S. Maria del Popolo, in Rome, as well in many other pictures. Also small writing-desks, placed on tables, have sometimes been depicted (figs. 4 and 371, and Bode Plate LXXI). 2) A. Schmarsow Melozzo da Forli pp. 33 4.

O Mahogany Arm Ciiair Iiippendiee Stle

Still another variBion of the .splat is here shown, and it is very interesting to note how many different designs can be made from the same theme. The splat, instead of joining the seat rail, is set into a rail slightly above, leaving an open space above the seat rail. At the center of the splat is a bishop's mitre, which would indicate that this chair had either been used in a church or had belonged to a bishop. At the center of the top rail is carved a scroll design. The supports for the arm are fluted. The legs are cabriole, terminating in bird's claw and ball feet, and the knees are carved with conventionalized cartouches. The center stretcher is slightly carved 011 the edge, from its appearance and general character if would seem that this was a Spanish chair, in which country the Chippendale designs were very popular and much copied.

Riving For Panelstuff Or Palefencing

Next in order come the woodworkers attached to the Church, who appear to have been lay-brothers as a general rule, and to have been free from the power of the King's master craftsmen. The monasteries maintained large numbers of masons, carpenters, joiners, carvers and illuminators, probably paying very little in money, but lavishly in produce and accommodation. From the high standard, both in skill and artistic inspiration (monastic fifteenth-century work is, obviously, a labour as much of love, as of duty) which the ecclesiastical workers possessed, transcending even those of the King's men, it is certain that their conditions of life must have been easy and enviable. 1 The proviso, in these royal mandates, is always inserted, that the King's carpenter has power to collect workmen, other than those in the fee of the Church.

Key To The Illustration On Opposite Page

Xo better conditions could have prevailed for the execution of works which should persist as monuments of art and craftsmanship as long as materials lasted. The Church created its own artisans, its masons, sculptors, carvers or joiners and employed them on its own works under the skilled direction of its prelates. That these craftsmen were lay brothers or monks is probable certainly they seem to have either disappeared when the monasteries were suppressed, or to have lost their skill both in designing and in executing. Possibly when the higher dignitaries of the Church came under the baneful notice of Wolsey and Cromwell, and many, as at Reading, Colchester and Glastonbury, perished at their hands, the guiding spirit of English architecture and woodwork took wings and fled.1 That art lived and grew only in the shadow of the Church cannot be doubted when fourteenth-century castles and cathedrals are compared. True, the former were built to withstand armed...

Univ Calif Digitized by Microsoft

In the early days, furniture followed closely the architecture of the period. Chests, cabinets, etc., were often given facades that were simply buildings in miniature, seats were stiff and cumbersome, chair posts often resembled small church spires, but with the1 advent of period styles, furniture designing became a separate profession, and we find a great variety of furmture constructed for both comfort and utility and entirely free from the architectural plan of the building although there was always a connecting link in detail or ornament which kept the two in harmony. It must be remembered there was no distinct line drawn lietwcen the different styles but rather a gradual change or development from one to the other. Much of the furniture made during these transitory periods is extremely difficult to classify, it oft-times being impossible for even experts to determine positively to which period a particular piece should belong.

Southwold Suffolk Chancel Screen

Show the same manner perpetuated in this pictorial decoration of Church woodwork. One of these panels, representing the Crucifixion, is shown here in Fig. 92. It forms the south wing of the reredos. There is the same intricacy in the patterning of the gesso ground as at Norwich Cathedral, but in a more free and flowing manner. The drawing of the figure of Christ is less archaic, as one would expect at this date. St. Michael-at-Plea possessed a magnificent screen in earlier times, of which this panel may have formed a part. Of this screen nothing now remains, if we except these panels. In 1504 the will of Katherine, widow of Alderman Thomas Bew field, leaves 5 marks for the painting and gilding of the rood-loft. A mark or mark of gold weighed eight ounces at this date, and was in value sixteen pounds, thirteen shillings and fourpence in the coin of this time, a large sum in the reign of Henry VII and up to the date when his son began to debase the coinage, as in those days money...

Various Tools Of The Sixteenth Century

The original Poor Law relief was inaugurated, not only to relieve those who were unemployed, but also those who wele engaged in work, but could not live on the wages which the ' earned.1 During the nineteenth century, to bring our present enquiry up to date, arose the custom of the poor seeking doles from the back doors, or kitchen regions, of the wealthy houses, in the shape of cast-off clothing, stale loaves, fragments of joints of meat and dripping, and, in many country villages even as late as 1SS0, this custom of begging was not regarded as disgraceful in any way. Regular attendance at the village church was imposed, as a condition, on the recipients of this charity.

Chipcarved Chest Of Elm And

The sixteenth century witnessed the abrupt decline of the line earlier Gothic traditions, after the destruction of the monasteries began in 1530. The Gothic lingered, but the earlier guidance of the Church is clearly absent in the woodwork produced after this date. Such a decline can be explained by no other hypothesis than the dispersal of the former knowledge and taste, with the abolition of the monastic houses. It is at this period that we get crude Gothic ornament of cusped tracery, coupled with still cruder construction, which might cause one to imagine that these examples were the forerunners of much of the fine woodwork of the fifteenth century. There are later methods visible in many of these pieces, however, such as the scratch-moulding of the upright styles of Fig. 36 for example, which show that mere crudity is no necessary indication of age. The construction here is from solid boards, without framing, uprights nailed to the sides in the manner of the early chests, and the...

Oak Corporation Chest

Due to superliveliness of imagination no apothecary in the fifteenth century would have possessed such a chest, so massive and elaborate, and so heavily guarded. He would have nothing of sufficient value to place inside it, apart from other weighty considerations. There are several hypotheses which are more credible. It may have been presented to an abbot or high church dignitary, and the name may be that of the donor, or more probable still, the name . FARES may indicate an initial of a Christian name coupled with the Latin name of an abbey or see, in the same manner as Cantuar or

Southwold Chancel Screen

T 1 In 1550, He (Ridley) also carried some injunctions with him against some remainders of the former superstition, and for exhorting the people to give alms, and to come often to the sacrament, and that altars might be removed, and tables put in their room in the most convenient place of the chancel. In the ancient Church their ables were of wood but the sacrament being called a sacrifice, as prayers, alms, and all holy oblations were, tliev came to be called ' altars.' This gave rise to the opinion of expiatory sacrifice in the mass, and therefore it was thought fit to take away both the name and form of altars. Ridley only advised the curates to do this but, upon some contests arising concerning it, the council interposed, anil required it to be done, and sent with their order a paper of reasons justifying it, showing that a table was more proper than an altar, especially since the opinion of an expiatory sacrifice was supported by it. BiBet, History 0 the Reformation. U St....

Oak Muniment Or Vestment Chest

Gothic Ambry Furniture

Michael's Church, Coventry. 6 ft. 5 ins. long by 3 ft. 2 ins. high by 2 ft. 3 ins. back to front. Fifteenth century. iS vessels, is the first instance of the development from the chest form, with a lid, to the cupboard with a door. It appears towards the close of the fifteenth century only, and is rare until about 1470. After that date it begins to develop rapidly, and standing or livery cupboards, with doors, take the place, largely, of the former chests with lids, although not entirely. The cupboard merely becomes, as it were, an addition to the furnishing of the house. It is always rare in a church, that is, as a piece made specifically for clerical use as compared with one presented or bequeathed. Cupboards possess certain advantages over chests which would cause their rise in favour to be both rapid and permanent. Articles, such as goblets of metal, can be placed vertically in a cupboard, and on two or more tiers if it be provided with shelves, and each article...

Part of oak screen doors from

Original Screen Door

In the little parish church of Culbone in Somerset is the little fourteenth-century screen illustrated here in Fig. 96. Another example is in Appledore Church, as far removed as the Romney Marsh, of very similar detail, which shows that the type must have been general at this date. The main frame of these simple screens consists of a cill, posts and a head or upper plate, all mortised and tenoned together. The heavy traceried heads are tenoned to the balusters instead of being grooved between vertical mullions in the later fashion. These heads are, therefore, cut from the one piece of timber, pierced with circles and with simple patterns, without cusping. In some of these early screens the shafts are turned in others, as in this example, they are moulded. There is rarely any other decoration beyond a crude moulding of the framework. Though sadly mutilated, the screen at Southwold, Fig. 119, presents, even in its present condition, a good example of the refined design and skilful...

Tools Of The Sixteenth Century

The cutting of oak timber, to produce wood of fine figure and durable quality, is one demanding considerable skill on the part of the sawyer or the river. To cut the log into boards in the way illustrated in Fig. 7a is the most economical way, but the planks produced in this manner are not durable. The annular rings, which will be noticed in the illustration (c), cause the board to cast. Fig. 7b shows the end section of the log before cutting, with the annular rings and also the medullary rays which radiate from the log-centre or heart. If boards are cut exactly parallel with this ray, the maximum figure of the wood is exposed, but the projecting ray is likely to scale out. The river of timber, as distinguished from the sawyer, always splits his oak parallel with the ray, and in many of the early Church doors the hard figure has persisted while the softer parts of the timber have worn away, leaving the ray standing out of the wood. The effect is picturesque, but the method is not the...

List Of Illustrations

Arms of Milton Abbey from a window in Ibberton church, Dorset, c. 1475. (From Archaeologia 48 vol. xlvii.) of Westminster abbey church. (From a photograph by Mr. David Weller) 37 abbey church. (From a photograph by Mr. David Weller) 44 from Tewkesbury abbey church. (From The Ancestor, vol. ix.) 58 gerford (ob. 1459) in Salisbury cathedral church. CFrom StotharcTs Monumental Effigies ) 60 dolf (ob. 1441) in Dennington church, Suffolk. (From Stothard's Monumental Effigies ) 60 of Cornwall in the quire of Westminster abbey church. (From Journal of the Society of Arts vol. xlv. 231) 66 earl of Pembroke, ob. 1296, in Westminster abbey church. (From StotharcTs Monumental Effigies ) 67 chapel of abbot Thomas Ramryge in St. Albans abbey church. (From BouteWs English Heraldry No. 210) 73 Guy lord Bryen, ob. 1390, in Tewkesbury abbey church. (From StotharcTs Monumental Effigies ) 74 the tomb of Edward prince of Wales at Canterbury, 1376. (Reduced from Vetusta Monumenta, vol. vii.) 84 34...

Frieze Details Of The Exeter Panelling

Thomas Paycocke

In the same way as with the staircase, the chimney-piece acquires a size and dignity towards the end of the sixteenth century, which it had not possessed, previously. The problem of the warming of churches in the fifteenth century, and earlier, does not appear to have been attempted at that period. These churches possess 110 fireplaces, nor any signs that such ever existed. Portable stoves were unknown, unless we except cressets or braziers, which, if used, must have been totally inadequate, and we can only assume that our fifteenth-century ancestors endured extremes of cold, in sacred edifices, to which we, at the present day, are totally unaccustomed. Even in early monastic refectories and large halls, fireplaces, where they exist, are nearly always of later date. benefactor to the bey and the Church in the closing years of the fifteenth century. The lintel illustrated here is shown in situ, in Fig. 260. It bears the initials T.P. in the central shield, and it is, therefore,...

XviiiList Of Illustrations

DiPMig-IIall, Christ Church, Oxford. inventories. These forms were popular in England, and were similar to those still found in the dining-halls of some of the English colleges and schools, benches heavily supported, as shown in Figure 402, which is the dining-hall at Christ Church College, Oxford.

Sixteenthcentury Oak Chest With Panel Of Earlier Date

Manner of the mid-fifteenth-centurv great windows, and there is no trace of the cusping which is so marked on the next example, Fig. 19, a chest from the Lady Chapel of St. Michael's Parish Church at Coventry. This is a typical late fifteenth-century Church muniment or vestment chest of large size and great weight. The ends are closely frame-braced over solid sides, and the front with its uprights is richly ornamented. Here again, it will be noticed that the front panel only is ecclesiastical in character, the uprights being rosetted in diamond tracery with a swan or other bird in the central panel. The top is nearly two and a half inches in thickness, of straight-cut oak, with tongued clamps at the ends. The side framings and the hasps are bolted through with large wrought-iron nails. The two locks are of a later date. For its age, this chest is in wonderful preservation. It is one of the earliest examples known where the uprights are prolonged to act as feet, with a shaped apron...

The Renaissance in the Netherlands

Netherlands History Furniture

In the Netherlands, the reigning princes of the great House of Burgundy had prepared the soil for the Renaissance, and, by the marriage of Mary of Burgundy with the Archduke Maximilian, the countries which then were called Flanders and Holland, passed under the Austrian rule. This influence was continued by the taste and liberality of Margaret of Austria, who, being appointed Governor of the Low Countries in 1507, seems to have introduced Italian artists and to have encouraged native craftsmen. We are told that Corneille Floris introduced Italian ornamentation and grotesque borders that Pierre Coech, architect and painter, adopted and popularised the designs of Vitruvius and Serlio. Wood carvers multiplied and embellished churches and palaces, the houses of the Burgomasters, the Town Halls, and the residences of wealthy citizens.

Xo Oak Wainscot Chair

Wainscot chairs, of which the one here shown is an example, were popular in the early seventeenth century. Their construction was the same as that of the chests and tables of the period, the rails and stiles mortised and tenoned, and fastened with wooden pegs, and the panels carved in designs similar to those used on the chests. The chair is heavily underbraccd. The inscription 011 this chair, Come unto me, ye weary, and I will give you rtst, would indicate that this chair was used in a church.

The Renaissance In England

Havernius Cleves

The joiner's work played a very important part in the interior decoration of the castles and country seats of this time, and the roofs were magnificently timbered with native oak, which was available in longer lengths than that of foreign growth. The Great Hall in Hampton Court Palace, which was built by Cardinal Wolsey and presented to his master, the halls of Oxford, and many other public buildings which remain to us, are examples of fine woodwork in the roofs. Oak panelling was largely used to line the walls of the great halls, the linen scroll pattern being a favorite form of ornament. This term describes a panel carved to represent a napkin folded in close convolutions, and appears to have been adopted from German work specimens of this can be seen at Hampton Court, and in old churches decorated in the early part of the sixteenth century. There is also some fine panelling of this date in King's College, Cambridge. It must be borne in mind, in considering the furniture of the...

The Renaissance in Italy

A few years after this date, Pope Julius II. commenced to build the present magnificent Church of St. Peter's, designed by Bramante d'Urbino, kinsman and friend of Raffaele, to whose superintendence Pope Leo X. confided the work on the death of the architect in 1514, Michael Angelo having the charge committed to him some years after Raffaele's death.

Oak Chest Nlaid With Marqueterie And Parqueterie Of Various Woods

There is another reason why pulpits prior to the end of the sixteenth century are useless for the purpose which is intended here. They are rarely, if ever, true to the type of their period. It is common knowledge that the Gothic style has, in many localities, a fixed association with the Church, and any furnishings, whether of wood or metal, are, in design, limited to that style. There would be little to complain of, as a rule, were the Gothic properly understood, but, unfortunately, in nearly even-instance, it is the worst possible travesty of the style which ignorance and the commands of economy can devise.

Dole Cupboard Of Deal

Were made, with open fronts partly filled in with turned balusters or spindles. They were intended either to be placed on a table, shelf or bracket, or to be fixed to the wall. Their probable use was to contain articles of food, for the keeping of which ventilation was necessary. Numbers of these cupboards are to be found in churches, as it was the custom, at this date, to distribute loaves and similar offerings to the poor of the parish, on certain stated occasions, in fulfilment of the terms of wills of charitable persons. One such gift, from the Skinners' Company, survived to recent times, if it has ever been abolished. These spindle-fronted dole-cupboards (for want of a better name) may have been made especially for such offerings, but this cannot be substantiated. Fig. 88, in the South Transept of St. Alban's Abbey, was undoubtedly used for such a purpose. Fig. Sq is from the same source. Both are designed with considerable taste, and the workmanship, especially' the carving, is...

The Hall Of The Mddle Temple

Suffolk Roof Church

Its stability depends solely on the permanence of its joints, and the safeguarding against decay, especially in the hammer-beams and the wall-posts. The huge cornice and the hammer-beams are, in reality, the only tcnsional members the others are in compression. As an example of clever construction on the part of the fifteenth-century carpenters this roof of Xecdham Market Church is a truly astonishing achievement.

Walnut Twotier Sideboard

Church is over-furnished, is original to that edifice. This pulpit is evidently made tip from old panelling. It is much more likely that it was removed from the ruined Aldington Priory, the refectory of which is now a part of the adjoining farm buildings. In the Church are fragments of screens both of late fourteenth and middle fifteenth-century dates, evidently from the same source. The present additional pulpit or reading desk (really the true pulpit of the Church), Figs. 73 and 74, and the very charming little font cover, Fig. 76, are no doubt original, although the font-cover is some fifty years later in date than the pulpit. In the latter, especially in the details given in Fig. 74, will be seen the Kentish manner of treating the arcaded and pilastered panel of which we have already illustrated examples from East Anglia. The coarse, yet vigorous flat cutting of Kentish ornament is shown, very clearly, in the case of the Mersham seats, Figs. 77 and 78. Fig. 79, again from...

Oak Chest With Iron Strapwork

Oak Chest Iron

Fig. 12 is a characteristic fourteenth-century chest from Dersingham Church, with fully-carvcd front. It is typical only, however, in belonging strictlj* to its period, but as an example of an ornate chest of this date it is highly exceptional. It is, beyond question, of English workmanship, whereas many of the ornate chest-fronts of this epoch are of doubtful nationality. The front is decorated with a winged angel holding the scroll of Matthew (Matheus) and Marcus, Lucas and Johannas are represented in the others. The front, which is carved from the solid, is tenoned into wide uprights, traceried in the mid-fourteenth-century manner, and above and below are bands ornamented with the rose of York centred between two birds, in a repeated pattern. There is no doubt that the making of chest and coffer-fronts was a regular industry in the fourteenth century, the system of solid-front construction lending itself to this separate production. Carvers of high skill evidently engaged in this...

Building Without Plans

Furniture Design Development Sketches

I have a number of sketchbooks, large ones that I use hi the shop and small ones that go on the road. I typically use a soft pencil, but in a pinch I'll use anything handy. I have a 9mni mechanical pencil that makes clean lines and doesn't arouse suspicion at church in my choir folder. I also have some fat drawing pencils that are great for putting the first idea for a piece down on paper.The line they leave is wide enough that I'm not tempted to draw a lot of detail, just shapes and proportions. Whatever pencil I use, 1 resist the temptation to erase I just live with errant lines 01 work

Carved Oak Chimney Beams

Henn divorced Catherine in 1533, three years before the dissolution of the great monasteries began, and her cognisance of the pomegranate would hardly have been introduced later, but Wolsey had fallen in 1529, and by one of the meanest tricks of which a king has ever availed himself, the estates of the clergy were held to be forfeited, by reason of the acknowledgment, by the Church, of Wolsey's legatine authority, although this had been used with the express sanction of the King. It may have been on this pretext, and at this date, that Waltham was seized upon, in lieu of the fines and subsidies by which the Church extricated itself from the royal clutches. If this theory be admitted, we have a probable date between 1529 and 1533 for this Waltham panelling. In 153S Henry YIII granted the manor to Sir Thomas Seymour, brother of the Duke of Somerset (a statesman whose ambitions brought him to the headsman's block), but Seymour exchanged it with the King after a few years. In 1543 it was...

XjRttMfHBBBflEI her tavern but these as Falstaff suggests

The icars' Hall, or to give it its full title, the Hall of the Vicars Choral, is now a mere fragment of a building in South Street, Exeter. Above the door is the legend Aula Collegii Yicariorum de Choro, which conveys to the Latinist an idea of the purpose for which it was built. It formed part of the property, if not of the Cathedral Church, which is now reached through the later archway at the side,- certainly of the icars who officiated at the services. It was customary-, in the Middle Ages, for a

Kentish Woodwork Types

Richard Legh

The Renaissance of the South-West, whether in clerical or in secular woodwork, is nearly always richer in detail than in the East of England. It is also, as a rule, exceedingly varied, yet possessing marked characteristics which are typical and recognisable. Such examples as the fine Wrey pew in Tawstock Church, Fig. 68, may be cited as representative of the expression of the French Renaissance in Devonshire, examples of which have already been illustrated in the Exeter panellings, Figs. 312 to 316, Vol. I. So closely was the style assimilated, and so fine in execution and full in design are manv of these Devonshire examples, that the hand of the French carver and designer has often been suspected, and with reason. In spite of this foreign character, very strong in such details as the balusters supporting the tester of this rich pew, there is 110 question as to its English origin, although French collaboration may be granted in its designing. The Kentish and Eastern Sussex types of...

The Renaissance In France

The character of the woodwork naturally accompanied the design of the building. Fireplaces, which until the end of the fifteenth century had been of stone, were now made of oak, richly carved and ornamented with the armorial bearings of the seigneur. The Prie dieu chair, which Viollet le Due tells us came into use in the fifteenth century, was now made larger and more ornate, in some cases becoming what might almost be termed a small oratory, the back being carved in the form of an altar, and the utmost care lavished on the work. It must be remembered that in France, until the end of the fifteenth century, there were no benches or seats in the churches, and, therefore, prayers were said by the aristocracy in the private chapel of the chateau, and by the middle classes in the chief room of the house.

The Home

During the Middle Ages the adornment of the Church was the chief object of the fine and applied arts. In the House of God Romanesque and Gothic art found manifold means of expression. Profane buildings only came in the second line for this special purpose those forms developed in church ornamentation and church furniture were resorted to and even in royal palaces many things were wanting, which today are an everyday necessity in the homes even of simple citizens. Only towards the end of this first great epoch of Christian Culture was a change noticeable, the precursor of a new great period, namely the Renaissance. This Jacob Burckhardt called the re-discovery of the world and mankind . Man had ceased to consider life here below as a preparation for eternity he had discovered the beauty and greatness of the earthly world and strove for possession spiritually through learning, materially through pleasure. It was no Liere chance that the churches of the middle ages towered high above the...

Medieval Background

For much of the Medieval or Gothic period, a large part of Europe was at war or in an unsettled state. The feudal system limited the ability of most of the population to own any furniture other than the basic necessities, and most craftsmen were only employed by powerful churches or nobles. In 1215 the Magna Carta was signed and became a basis for an English Parliament and system of law which gradually developed to support a growing merchant class. During the 1350s the Black Death led to

1

Cupboards, literally meaning boards containing cups, came into use during this period, and furniture was further supplemented by the credence which was of church origin. Like the dressoir it served the purpose of a buffet or serving table. Viollet-le-Duc illustrates a credence of the late Gothic period which contains four shelves, arranged like steps, each one filled with gold and silver vessels. The dressoir was of simpler form and a less costly article. The dresser as a piece of dining room furniture still retains its original significance. The use of the word to designate a dressing-table or a bureau is modern and quite incorrect. The fourteenth century inaugurated a new era in domestic architecture. The religious enthusiasm of the people, inspired by the crusades, was over, and the zeal which was previously lavished on churches was now expended on dwellings. The origin of many famous castles in England and France may be traced to this activity.

Westminster Hall

Appointment of John GodmesttW clerk to cause the great Hall to be repaired, taking the necessary masons, carpenters and labourers wherefor whenever found except in the fee of the church, with power to arrest and imprison contrariants, until further order and also to take stone, timber, tiles and other materials for the same at the King's charges and to sell branches, bark and other remnants of trees provided for the said hall, as well as the old timber from it and from an old bridge near the palace by view and testimony of the King's controller of the said works for the time being accounting for the moneys so received and recei ing in that office wages and fees at the discretion of the Treasurer of England.

The Style In England

Thomas Chippendale was baptised at Otley, Yorkshire, on June 5, 1718. As baptisms in the Church of England are not delayed, he was probably born the same year. His father was a joiner of that town by the name of John, and not also Thomas as was formerly believed. Mr. Oliver Brackett, of the Victoria and Albert Museum, who has gathered .together various particulars, says that it is reported by John Chippendale of NewcaStle-on-Tyne that Chippendale attracted by his unusual ability the notice of the ancestors of the Earl of Harewood through whose assistance he was enabled to Start in business in London, and remarks that this was probably in placing him in some well-known cabinet-shop there. I may add that Harewood House was one of the large establishments for which, from 1771-75 Chippendale executed important furniture in his alliance with Robert Adam.

Litany Desk

A litany desk with fixed kneeler is shown in 508, while 509 gives a side elevation of the desk illustrated in 510, with a collapsible kneeler upholstered with foam rubber on a plywood base and covered with cowhide. This memorial desk 2 ft 6 in (76 cm) wide, 1 ft 51 2 in (44 cm) deep and 3 ft (91 cm) high was made at the request of a client who asked for a primrose and ivy carved decoration to be incorporated for remembrance. Details of the St Mark's lion are shown in 509. As the central aisle of the church was fairly narrow the lectern was fitted with hidden ball-type castors so that it could be wheeled to a side aisle when not in use. 511 Simple litany desk for Bullwood Borstal Institute Church. England. 511 Simple litany desk for Bullwood Borstal Institute Church. England.

Walnut Easy Chair

In place of the earlier caning, backs of chairs began to be greatly elaborated in the early years of William III. Fig. 330, another example from Bond's Hospital, has the rich French type of pierced and carved back, in conjunction with the Flemish curved legs and cross-streteher. Another departure at this date, which may be noted here, is that this stretcher is no longer tenoned into the front legs but into the side rails. This is an early example of a fashion which subsequently became very general. Fig. 331 has the ornate back and baluster-turned front legs curiously reeded on the lower member. In proportion and the style of carving of the back there is a strong suggestion of Italian influence in this chair. Fig. 332, is one of a pair in the chancel of Biddenden Church in Kent, of graceful form and fine detail, unusually well preserved. The stretcher is here tenoned into the front legs, but placed higher up than is usually the case, two squares being left by the turner for this...

Dated theff J

Jacobean Farthingale Chair

(See next page for sizes.) Barking Church, Suffolk. St. Michael's Church, St. Albans. St Michael's Church, St. Albans. St. Michael's Church, St. Albans. St Michael's Church, St. Albans. Chairs with turned legs, prior to the accession of James I, are very rare, and usually of high quality. The fine chair from Barking Church, Suffolk, here illustrated in Figs. 219 to 221, is one of this late sixteenth-century kind and of East Anglian origin. The use of the In this chair from Barking Church, the seat-rail, of inverted thumb-section, is carved with the late form of Elizabethan strap-work. The front legs are turned, with flutes, 174 The very charming little stool, Fig. 222, similar both in design and county of origin to the chair from Barking Church, may be described as the 1600 type. The inverted thumb-moulded frieze, carved with a centred gadroon, is applied over the upper squares of the delicately-turned and fluted legs. The stretcher-railing is kept low to give the maximum of strength....

The Development

Both these types of roof introduce a new principle, the necessity of resisting the downward and outward pressure, or thrust, which tends to force either the supporting walls out of perpendicular,1 or the roof itself off the walls. With the lean-to roof, the type largely used in the aisles of churches, this outward thrust is exercised on the one wall only with the pitched-roof it is thrown 011 both. 1 Brookland Church, near Romnev in Kent (see small illustration on page Go), is a good instance of where the thrust of the nave roof has pushed both the outer walls and the aisle columns out of the perpendicular. BROOKLAND CHURCH, KENT BROOKLAND CHURCH, KENT

Southwold Chancel

Fig. 76 is a roof of similar type to the preceding, with a resemblance strong enough to suggest a common origin for both. In no instance, however, is one church roof a facsimile of another. Here the one collar is braced direct to its wall-post, but the next in order has the carved hammer-beam intervening. Each wall-post is without corbel and the collars are not cambered. A moulded king-post connects each collar to the ridge. Wetherden Church, in Suffolk, has an elaborate roof, Fig. 77, of the double hammer-beam pendentive type. The collar-beams are moulded and cambered, centred with carved floral bosses, and each is arch-braced to the upper tier of hammer-beams, In Fig. 79 is illustrated the line nave roof of Earl Stonham Church, Suffolk, of single hammer-beam form, with richly moulded, crenellated and cambered collar-beams, arch-braced to the hammers and centred with king-posts above and carved pendants below. The spandrels in the triangle formed by the principal, the hammer-post and...

Sefacs And Prfacse

We have, however, a meagre groundwork with which to commence, in ecclesiastical furniture of the movable type, and especially in such woodwork as pulpits or choir stalls. We can say in the case of fixed woodwork in churches, with a fairly close approximation to the truth, that this is of local manufacture, and once made and placed in position was not likely to be removed elsewhere. The preserved records of the Church itself frequently establish this beyond doubt. Even in the case of clerical establishments prior to and during the period when Henry VIII was waging his campaign against the power and property of the monasteries, the same applies. Country churches were comparatively little affected by the strife which destroyed monasteries, abbeys and priories, as the activities of Henry VIII and his son were directed, principally, against the larger clerical establishments.2 By reasoning from the fixed woodwork to the movable furniture contained in country churches, it is possible, with...