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Fig. 353.—Pattern for Top of Cabinet Back.

Fig. 858.—Pattern for Part of Cabinet Back.
  1. 354.—Detail of Cabinet Mirror.
  2. 354.—Detail of Cabinet Mirror.

Fig. 305.—Traoery of Door of Cabinet

  1. 358.—Door instead of Curtains in Lower Part of Cabinet
  2. 305.—Traoery of Door of Cabinet
  3. 358.—Door instead of Curtains in Lower Part of Cabinet

360.—Top Moulding Centre Cabinet.

Fig. S61.—Top of Centre Cabinet

  1. 368.—Top Shelf and 8upporta of Centre Cabinet
  2. S61.—Top of Centre Cabinet
  3. 368.—Top Shelf and 8upporta of Centre Cabinet

Fig. 363.—Top 8helf Moulding of Centre Cabinet

Fig. 364. Top Shelf Support for Centre Cabinet

Fig. 367.

  1. 366 and 367.-Sections of Glazed Framing of Centre Cabinet
  2. 364. Top Shelf Support for Centre Cabinet

Fig. 369.

  1. 848.—Plan of Bails under Centre Cabinet's Top Shell
  2. 368jand 369.—Part Section and Plan showing Centre Cabinet's Top connected to Bottom.
  3. This may then be used as a pattern for marking out on the mahogany board previous to cutting out with the bow or band-saw. To fix the shaped corner pieces to the shelf, two strips about 1 in. wide by f in. thick are halved together, and their ends sunk into the shaped supports and screwed as shown in Fig. 365. The lower ends of the shaped pieces are screwed from the under side of the top. To simplify the work, the upper shelf and the corner supports may be omitted without impairing the appearance of the cabinet.

Carcase of Centre Cabinet.—The carcase now remains to be made. The putting together by mortising and tenoning of the framework requires careful and neat workmanship. The upright corner posts on the opposite side to the door are in. square, with the inside corners bevelled off, as at d (Fig. 366). Those right and left of the door are in. by J in., as at e (Fig. 367); and the door stiles are 1 in. wide by J in. thick. The middle bars and cross bars are J in. wide on the face by J in. thick. The top and bottom rails are 1£ in. wide by j in. thick, and are rebated to receive a pine top and bottom, each I in. thick. Fig. 368 is a section, and Fig. 369 a part plan, showing the method of connecting the top and bottom to the framing with screws. To receive the plate glass a ^-in. rebate is worked on the cross bars and framing; and the edges next to the glass are hollowed with a quarter circle moulding, as shown in Figs. 366 and 367. A line of satinwood stringing is inlaid in the middle of the cross bars, corner posts, and top and bottom rails. Two shelves are required opposite the cross bars; these may be of pine, covered with a suitable shade of velveteen, the bottom of the carcase being covered with the same material. The shelves are fixed by slanting screws at each corner. The glass may be fixed with putty, or with beads, as shown in Figs. 366 and 367. Three small butt hinges and a very narrow lock are required for the door. The usual french-pofishing will complete the cabinet.

Fig. 370.—Front Elevation of Soft

COUCHES, SOFAS, AND SETTEES.

Sofa.

Tittc parlour sofa shown at Fig. 370 is good and substantial, and by no means difficult to make. The whole of the wood-workimay be yellow pine ; or, if preferred, exposed parts may be walnut or mahogany. Tho bottom frame (see half plans, Figs. 371]and 372) is made of 2J-in. by 2-i~n. stuff (sco soction of front rail, Fig. 373), which should be free from twist, the corners

375, are cut from j-in. stuff. The narrow outline is the show-wood or outer scroll, and the wider one tho stuffing scroll. The stuffing .scrolls are framed up with housed braces to the exact width of the bottom frame (see Fig. 37G), and are jointed to the bottom frame by three dowels at the bottom of each scroll. The outer front scrolls are extended at the bottom to meet the plinth on the sofa front, as shown in Fig. 370, and are rounded or beaded on tho

Fig. 370.—Front Elevation of Soft being halved together. Tho braces are housed into tho front and back rails, and take the centre dowel of the legs; these are turned from blocks 10 in. by 5 in. square (see Fig. 374), the toe being cut to take either pin or socket castors. The position of the leg» is shown in Fig. 371 ; they are fixed to the braces by means of dowels, and well glued. The plinth (see Fig. 373) runs right along the front rail and along each end, .he corners being rniteri.il. The arm scrolls, which should be set out as shown in Fig.

edge; they arc then glued to tho front stuffing scrolls. The back is made of j-in. stuff. A naif elevation of this is shown at Fig. 377, and a section through the top ruil at Fig. 378. It should lie framed together with dry hardwood dowels. Before the ends are trimmed, the back frame should bo scrcwcd in position; then the ends can be marked off to the sweep of the stuffing scrolls and dressed down to tho lines. A half-round mould is fixed to the top edge of the back, two curved li>7

  1. 371. Fig. 372.
  2. 371 and 372.—Half Plans of Sofa's Bottom Frame.

Fig. 373.—Section of Sofa's Front Rail.

pieces being worked round the corners. A V-groove is made with a parting tool or scratch header, 1 in. from the lower edge, to serve as a tacking line for the stuffing. Before stuffing, rasp or shave off all sharp edges on the woodwork. A section of a stuffed arm and spring seat is shown at Fig. 379. The seat will require two dozen

American leather, or hair seating, will make a suitable covering for a sofa of this kind.

Cromwell Couch.

Of the Cromwell couch (Fig. 381), the first part to be made is the bottom frame (Fig. 382), for which 14 ft. 6 in. of pine 3 in. by If in. will be required. Plane uj'Uhe

  1. 374.—Leg of Fig. 375.—Pattern for
  2. Sofa Scrolls.

springs, placed in eight rows of three each, of a variety known as 9-in. hard furniture springs. The front edge of the seat and the front sweep of the arms are well stitched up with three rows of stitches. A section of the stuffed back is shown at Fig. 380 ; the top edge is formed into a roll and stitched up. The stuffed portions having been finished in canvas or calico, the woodwork can be stained and polished, and touched up when the cover and gimping are placed in position. A good quality of

stuff and form a rectangular frame 5 ft. 6 in. long by 1 ft. 8 in. wide, with ordinary halved joints at the corners. The spring rails are 1 ft. 6 in. long, 3 in. wide, and J in. thick, after being dressed. Two pieces, each 1 ft. 6 in. long by 3 in. wide, are needed for the leg stays, the one at the head being let into the side rails at a distance of 6 in. from the end (inside measurement); , the stay at the foot is attached in the same tray at a distance of 3 in. from the rail. spring rails are let into the side rails for a

  1. 371. Fig. 372.
  2. 371 and 372.—Half Plans of Sofa's Bottom Frame.
  3. 373.—Section of Sofa's Front Rail.

Fig. 377. - Half Elevation of Back Frame Fig. 380. Section of Stuffed of 8ofa. Back of 8ofa.

Tig, 17» 8eotion of Sofa'i Spring Seat and Stuffed Arm.

Fig. 377. - Half Elevation of Back Frame Fig. 380. Section of Stuffed of 8ofa. Back of 8ofa.

depth of t\ in. from the top, and are secured from the front and back with uails. The curve at the foot is made out of a piece of stuff 2 in. by 3 in.; leave it of the full a cushion scat is desired, the spring rails can be substituted by a solid boarded bottom, or a eroas-webbed bottom covered with Hessian cloth. The shilling scrolls are made from 1-in. stuff, and are sawn out with a band saw, a jig saw, or a compass saw, to the. pattern shown by Fig. 383 (reproduced to scale of 1 \ in. to the foot, approximately). Make a full-sine pattern or template of stout paper or cardboard, place it on the wood, and mark off the positions. After sawing, dress the edges of the curve with a spokeshave, and shoot tho bottoms with u trying plane. Frame up with two cross-pieces, fitting in grooves 2 in. from the top and 0 in. from the bottom of each frame. The outside measurement of the scroll frame must be of the exact width of the bottom frame, measured across the end. Gauge from the outside for the dowels in the centre and along the bottom frame, lxire the holes with a centre-bit, glue, and drive the dowels in, being careful to make a good fit. The outside scroll, moulding, and back, with the exception of the stuffing rails and the bottom rail, should preferably lie made of liardwood, stick as mahogany, walnut, birch, etc. The moulding is of a simple quarter-circle pattern, and runs along the wholo length of the front, round the end, and up the back to the terminal. If any difficulty is experienced in forming the bend at the end, make a few saw kerfs half-way through the moulding width in the centre and work Aut tho curve to the ends, making it 1 ft. 8 in. over «11. Tho curve is nailed on the foot rail. The four legs are each 9 in. long (exclusive of the castors) and 5J in. wide, and are each secured to the frame with three dowels, two of the dowels passing iuto the side rails

Tig, 17» 8eotion of Sofa'i Spring Seat and Stuffed Arm.

and oo« into the leg stays. Make the dowels a clean driving fit, glue them in, and allow the work to dry. The foregoing refeni to a couch having a spring seat; if from the back bottom edge. Make lap Back of Cromwell Couch.—The back can joints at the corners, and finish off with a now be made. Saw out the terminal to the file. The outside scroll is secured with pattern given at Fig. 384, which is repro-

screws from the inside of the stuffing scroll, duced one-eighth full size. This terminal

  • 2*. 10- -
  • 2*. 10- -
Fig. 381.—Front Elevation of Cromwell Couch.

Fig. 382.—Plan of Bottom Frame of CromweU Couch.

  1. 383.—Pattern for Scroll of Cromwell Couch.
  2. 382.—Plan of Bottom Frame of CromweU Couch.
  3. 383.—Pattern for Scroll of Cromwell Couch.
Fig. 384.— Pattern for Terminal of Couch.
  1. 388.—Leg of Fig. 385.—Section of Couch. Couch Handrail.
  2. 386.—Spindle of Couch.
  3. 388.—Leg of Fig. 385.—Section of Couch. Couch Handrail.

The edges of both scrolls are flush with each should be made 5 in. wide at the bottom, other under the couch head, the front of the and 1J in. thick, and the curved edge, after stuffing scroll being raised about 2 in. on the being sawn and dressed, is reeded with four front, which, wrhen stuffed, will give a ¿-in. half-round reeds, and the top pointed height of 3 in. above the outside scroll— to a pyramid 1 in. long. The two spindle thus making what is known as a German rails are 1J in. thick, and are beaded on the arm, which does not require a pillar.

inside edge ; they are stump-tenoned into the terminal and middle rail, leaving a space 6 in. wide for the spindles. The handrail at the top of the spindle frame is of the shape shown at Fig. 385. The spindles (Fig. 386) are 6 in. long, exclusive of the rail, and with a screw through the foot ornament. The supporting rails of the curve are made from pine 2 in. wide -and 1 in. thick, and the upright rails are stump-tenoned into the curved back and bottom

  1. 889.—Front Elevation of Drum-head Couch.
  2. 894.— Terminal of Drum-head Couch.

Fig. 889.—Front Elevation of Drum-head Couch.

« .Cl

  1. 890.—Bottom Frame of Drum-head Couch.
  2. 894.— Terminal of Drum-head Couch.
  1. 892. —Outside Scroll of Couch.
  2. 890.—Bottom Frame of Drum-head Couch.

Fig. 890.—Baluster of Couch.

Fig.

39L—8ecti<m of Couch RaiL

Fig. 890.—Baluster of Couch.

Fig. 898.—Stuffing Scroll of Couch.

tenon at each end, and 1J in. thick. Care must be taken to see that they are quite upright before being glued. The curved back is made from lj-in. stuff, and is sawn out to the pattern shown at Fig. 387. The back is made full in order to leave sufficient material for dressing, etc., and is fastened with dowels to the inner side of the middle back rail. "When all the joints have been made and squared, glue up, and cramp until set. The back is secured to the carcase with two 3-in. screws in the terminal, two similar screws in the middle rail, and four 2-in. screws in the bottom back rail; two 3-in. screws are put through the end of the curved back, passing into the back stuffing scroll. The carving is simple incised work, and is worked as follows :— Mark out the design on the wood, follow the lines with a V-tool or veiner, then go over it with a ¿-in. spade tool, finally cleaning out with a regulator. The small rosettes can be made with the V-chisel alone, and the long lines on the back can be marked out with a scratch gauge. After brass socket castors have been fitted on the couch legs (Fig. 388 shows one of the legs) the frame is complete and is ready for upholstering.

Drum-head Couch.

Fig. 389 shows in front elevation the frame of a drum-head couch ; for it, stained moulding, if worked independently of the rail (see Fig. 391), will require kerfing to the sweep of the corners. The bottom frame is stiffened by a rail housed into the side rails as shown in Fig. 390, and also by an iron rod 1 in. wide by J in. thick, screwed flush on the under side of the frame.

Head and Back of Drum-head Couch.— After the bottom frame is glued and cramped the couch head can be set out. Fig. 392 shows an outside scroll. First, from lj-in. stuff, with a compass saw or band saw cut a pair of stuffing scrolls (Fig. 393); these are framed up by cross rails housed into their inner faces as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 393. The head, when complete, should measure 2 ft. 2 in. across, and is

Fig. 396. -Box Ottoman.

birch or mahogany or walnut to harmonise with surrounding furniture may be used. The style of decoration lends itself readily to incised carving, and the rosettes may be worked in low relief, when brown oak would be a suitable wood. First make the bottom frame (Fig. 390); the side and end rails are each 3 in. by 1J in. thick, and are dovetail-mortised into the leg stumps, which are 2 J in. square by 1 ft. long without castors. The curved foot-rail is dowelled into the leg stump ; this rail, if worked from the solid, will require rebating on the outside curve to a depth of 2 in., leaving a projection J in. wide by 1 in. deep for working a plain centre beading to match the one which is stuck on the front. The secured to the bottom frame by three dowels at each side. The ornamental scroll is fixed by gluing and screwing through the inside of the stuffing scroll, and should lie flush with the beaded moulding as shown in Fig. 389. The couch back is made of two lj-in. rails, each 2 in. wide and 4 ft. 3 in. long, the bottom rail being centre beaded to match the front moulding. These rails are secured by mortice joints to the terminal (Fig. 394), and before the rails are secured the three balusters (Fig. 395) must be cut and fitted. The terminal is half jointed 3 in. from the bottom and secured to the side rail by three screws. The two rails are cut halfway through where they meet the back stuffing scroll, and are screwed into the back. In this pattern of couch the bolster arm and head are firmly stuffed, and the seat and head swell are sprung; but before beginning stuffing, rasp all the edges over which the covers will be laid.

Box Ottoman.

A box ottoman (see Fig. 390) is often quite roughly nailed together, as the inside is lined with print or calico. A useful size is 3 ft. 6 in. by 1 ft. 7 in. and 1 ft. 2 in. deep, all ""outside measurements, with the lid 3 ft.

pleating being shown in Fig. 398. Next cut out the festoons, which, when finished, must measure 5 in. at the widest part, and 1 in. at the ends below the bottom edge of the fringe. As shown in Fig. 399, the ends are sloped away, so that when gathered there will not be too much bulk of stuff for the tacking. The festoons are tacked on pleats, underneath the fringe. Before cutting out the festoons, practise on a waste piece of material, which may bo used as a puttern to mark out the finished material. The

  1. 397.—Box Ottoman before Covering.
  2. 398.—Folding of Pleats for Box Ottoman.
  3. 397.—Box Ottoman before Covering.

7 in. by 1 ft. 8 in., this allowing j-in. projection all round the box. The cross buttens on the lid (see Fig. 397) are 4 in. wide by 1 in. thick, and a little shorter than the inside width of the box. For the covering of the outside, cretonne or damask will look well, with a slightly different shade for the festoons and tails. When the box is made, the first thing is to put on the pleated sides and ends. These should be tacked on A in. lower than the top edge to prevent all Ihe tacking parts coming over each other. Four castors, about 2 in. high, should be screwed to the under side of the box. The pleated sides and ends must reach to within 2 in. of the floor, the method of corner and side tails may now be added, and should be set out. on paper to Figs. 400 and 401. For Fig. 400 the centre line u e is 12j in. long, b f 1 j in., k d 2J in., d to h 4} in., b a in., d c in., and h g 5$ in. The sweep of line c g e is obtained by the intersection of lines a g and g h. The segments are about equal, and are, say, 1 in. wide at the top and 2 in. at the bottom. Set out Fig. 401 from the following measurements:—be 12 in., bf 1 in., fd 3j in., d h 4f in., b a 3J in., d o 6J in., and h g 3J in. The segments are about f in. wide at the top and about If in. wide at the bottom. A narrow fringe is sewn to the bottom edges of the tails. The plan of folding j'x nh'/wn to 402 and 403. In tadring on the festoons and tails, the distanc* from the top edge of the box is regulated by the heading« of the fringe, for it the fringe is of an open trellis pattern, the fe*t/*on* and tails would be seen through the fringe. This is fixed on by suitable nails or gimp pins. Next cover the inside of the box with the print, calico, or glazed

The box ottoman settee shown in Kg. 404 has a framework nearly all the parts of which can be got oat of 1-in. by 11-in. boards, a size which is stocked in yellow pine by timber dealers. Begin by m*lrrng the box or settee body (Figs. 405 and 406). For dovetail joints at the corners the dimensions

holland, letting it lap on the top edges of the box. If preferred, the box may be lined first, the lining being brought to the out-sides of the box before the pleated parts are fastened. The lid may have a flat stuffing of hair or flocks. The outer covering is brought to the under side of the lid, and then the lining is added, the battens being first covered. The lid is now connected to the box with three brass butt hinges; and to prevent the lid falling back -inching off the hinges, tapes are *th each end to inside the box. la closed, the tapes fall inside.

  1. 403 and 40ft—Folding Tails far Box
  2. 40ft. Fig. 403.
  3. 403 and 40ft—Folding Tails far Box

Fig 401.

given will apply, but when cross-cutting the boards for plain lap joints, the two end pieces should be 1 ft. 7 in. lo*g, the other dimensions remaining the sane. To get the depth, it will be necessary -<> join two pieces of stuff, and with care a foil width and a half of the 11-in. boards will, after jointing and shooting, come out »he correct width for each side. Before t^ carcase is put together, the rebates for %e bottom should be ploughed out as shown n Kg 406. The bottom is strengthened by ^ cross-braces, 2£ in. wide by 1 in. tlj^ let in flush with the bottom boards (afe Rg. 405).

Fig 401.

Figs. 400 and 401.—Development of Tails for Box Ottoman.

Figs. 400 and 401.—Development of Tails for Box Ottoman.

Fig. 404.—Box Ottoman Settee.
Fig. 400.—Front Elevation of Body of Box Ottoman Settee.
  1. 407.—Scroll Arm of Box Ottoman 8ettee.
  2. 4M.—Box Body of Box OHw Settee.
  3. 407.—Scroll Arm of Box Ottoman 8ettee.
  4. 408.—Scroll Frame of Box Ottoman Be*4—

At each corner, glue and screw a castor block, 3 in. square by 1 in. thick. Next get out four scroll arms as Fig. 407, dressing all the angles to the same sweep. The bottom edges which fit on the box sides are shot square and true with the trying plane;

frame should correspond with the width of the box, and when placed in position the two faces should be a good fit. The frames are secured to the box by dowel joints, two ¿-in. dowels in each scroll being sufficient if the work is properly done. Use

Fig. 409.—Half Front Elevations of Dividing Settee and Framework.
Fig. 410.—Seat Frame of Dividing Settee.
  1. 411.—Pair of Turned Legs before Cutting in Two.
  2. 411.—Pair of Turned Legs before Cutting in Two.
  3. 412.—Top Rail of Dividing Settee.
  4. 413.—Joint of Settee'« Top Rail and Corner Leg.
  5. 412.—Top Rail of Dividing Settee.
  6. 413.—Joint of Settee'« Top Rail and Corner Leg.

this is important, the correct fitting of the settee head to the body depending on it. Frame the scrolls in pairs, as shown in Fig. 408, by housing two cross rails to a depth of i in. into the inner sides of the scrolls, and by a head-rail, which is cut to a sweep of 2J in. in the centre to 1 in. at each end. Whenput together, the outside width of the dry hardwood dowels and fresh hot glue. The back is 5 ft. 3 in. long at the top, but it would be advisable to check this measurement before cross-cutting, as more or less rake may have been given in fitting the two arm frames. The top and bottom rails are jointed by a centre piece 3 in. wide, and by two shaped end pieces, which are marked and cut to the outline of the back scrolls after the back is made up. The dimensions given in Fig. 405 are face measurements only, and if it is intended to mortice-joint the back, allowance must be made for tenons in cutting the stuff. The top corners are rounded, and the back is fixed by screwing to the box back and the back scrolls. The seat frame is 3 ft. long by 1 ft. 9 in. wide and 2 in. thick, and the corners are dovetailed and four cross rails are let in flush with the bottom edges (see Fig. 405). For a loose cushion seat, the seat frame need only be made on the flat from 1-in. stuff, the loose cushion lying on the top. Special attention should be paid to castoring, as the settee when the box portion is filled with goods will have considerable weight; use 2-in. plate castors with solid brass runners. Before beginning to stuff, shave or rasp off all the sharp edges over which the covers will pass. The ba$k is removed and stuffed on the bench. The lower part of the back and the insides of the arms are tufted and buttoned. The seat is sprung with eight 6-in. chair springs, fixed two to each cross-rail. A cotton tapestry or cretonne, at about Is. a yard, will be a suitable material for covering the settee, and the whole of the outsides of the box and scrolls should be covered by pasting and tacking, the edges being finished with coloured furniture cord, slip-stitched on. The inside of the box should be either stained and varnished or painted light blue.

Dividing Settee.

A settee constructed as shown in Fig. 409 is found very convenient where room is a consideration. Fig. 409 shows the combination as used to form a settee, but if the parts were placed back to back, the result would take the place to a certain extent of the useful though cumbersome centre ottoman. Another position, gained by partly dividing the front, and allowing the back corners to touch, would result in each sitter being independent of his neighbour, or the settee can be properly divided and used as two corner chairs. Full dimensions for one-half only are given, as these will apply exactly to the other half, the only difference in the halves being that they are right- and left-handed. Fig. 410 shows the seat frame. To begin with the construction of the settee, the legs and stumps are got from 2J-in. square stuff. Two legs can be set out and turned from a piece 4 ft. 2 in. long, the turning being done before sawing out the legs (see Fig. 411). Four legs, as shown in Fig. 409, will be required, and also two stump feet, each 1 ft. by in., and two back corner legs, which are left 2£ in. square for the full length, the other legs being cut down to avoid undue heaviness. To get the two seats close together, the rails are sunk f in. behind the level of the feet; and if the edges of the upholstered seats are properly stitched up, they will slightly overhang and close the breach. The rail can be either stump-tenoned or dowelled into the legs; and if the former method is adopted, allow for tenons when cutting off the stuff. The seat frame will be greatly strengthened by wood dogs glued and screwed to the rails, as in Fig. 410. The top rail is shaped and tongued as shown in section at Fig. 412, and the method of attaching this to the back corner legs is explained by Fig. 413, the top of the leg being cut away to the thickness of the rails. Stuffing rails are fitted all round the seat frame, and two such rails are added to complete the panel rebates in the back. The decoration of the show-wood portions can be of inlaid stringing or reeding. The settee is mounted on. eight socket castors, and in order to prevent motion when in use as a settee, four brass catch hooks, two underneath and two behind, engage with the brass eye-screws, and keep the two halves together. The dimensions given are suitable for pine or whitewood; but for hardwood, such as mahogany, walnut, oak, etc., the various members can be diminished by about one-fifth.

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