To upholster a chair of this description is hardly a job for the woodworker, but it is convenient to understand the process. Turn the frame bottom up, and web the bottom. No. 12 English grey webbing should be used from back to front, with six lengths of webbing, and from side to side with eight, using good J-in. tacks, and doubling over the ends of the webbing. The insides of the arms are webbed with six lengths from top to rail, and two lengthwise. The inside of the back will require six lengths up and nine across. The springs for the seat (see Fig. 97) should be No. 9 hard 8 in., and the back swell springs No. 7 soft 7 in. Sixteen springs are put in the seat and seven in the back swell (four in the bottom row and three in the top). These are sewn to the webbing
mortice and tenons, the rake of the back and covered with best quality hessian being set before the measurements of the spring canvas. Fig. 97 also shows how arm rails are taken. The arm rails are the canvas is fixed over the back swell housed into the legs, and glued and springs, being sewn to the webbing about
1 ft. irom the top. The coverings are tacked on the back of the stuffing and seat rails. The insides of the arms are stuffed firm, the top edge being stitched side linings, which arc of the some material. The outer side of the back and arms should be webbed with a cheap cotton webbing to prevent the linings sagging. The tack-
up square (see Fig. 98). The front edge 01 the seat, and the top and sides of the buck as far as the arms, are also stitched up square. The chair should be stuffed with horsehair, but cocoa-fibre or alva will be quite suitable for stitching up edges and first stuffing. Finish the work right out in calico, and then lay on
tli«- outer covering of cotton or linen tapes-tn", which can bo procured 50 in. wide. If care is taken in cutting out. 3 yd. will be «jflictent for both coverings and out
ing lines are hidden with a lj-in. chair braid, secured and finished off with ¡-in. copper-headed uuils; the braid and nails can be procured from any upholsterer's warehouseman. The nails are insert«! in. apart ; no advantage is gained by putting them closer, while the effect inay be entirely spoiled. To keep out dust the seat is underlined with a piece of black forfar.
Hall chairs are generally made of mahogany, oak. or walnut, the selection being governed by the style of the other hall furniture. Figs. 91) and 100 show a suitable design, and later figures will give alternative designs for the back. The measurements about to be given are for a chair suitable for a narrow hall or passage. The construction is the same in all the designs, as also is the thickness of the wood. The backs are of 1-in. stuff ;
elevation as in Fig. 99. First draw the two horizontal lines of the seat, making the height of the seat from the floor 1 ft. 5J in. ; next the outsides of legs, 1 ft. 3$ in. apart,
Fig. 104.—Elevation of Part of Chair Back, showing Plug.
Fig. 105.—Section showing Turned Button and Screw.
Dg 10« — Fint Alternative Deilgn (or Ball Chair Back.
rig«. 110 and 111.—De«ign» for HaU Chair L«ga
Dg 10« — Fint Alternative Deilgn (or Ball Chair Back.
is shown in Fig. 100. The pitch of the back and back legs is obtained by drawing a perpendicular line from the bottom of the leg, and then allowing the leg at the seat to stand back 3 in., the back 2$ in., and the top of back 1 in. The length from the outsides of the front and back legs is 1 ft. 0| in. Next set out the plan of the seat as in Fig. 101, the rails standing back $ in. from the face of the front legs and \ in. from the back of the back legs. From the plan get the shoulder bevels of the side rails. To obtain the fullest length of tenon, the side rails should be mitered where they meet, as shown in Fig. 102. To strengthen the frame, braces If in. thick are glued and screwed to the rails (see a, Fig. 101). When fixed, they are planed level with the top edges of the rails, and the seat is glued to them. The blocks b are glued in for further security of the seat. The back legs are cut away near the top to allow the chair-back to fit close against the back seat-rail (see c, Fig. 100). The chair-back is fixed with screws and glued, a centre-bit hole being first bored J in. deep, and then the hole is countersunk to receive the screws. The top hole is plugged to match the same way of the grain as the chair back (see Figs. 103 and 104); or a turned button may be used to fill the hole, as in Fig. 105. The corners of the front legs and the front of the seat are bevelled (see Fig. 101), sections of alternative patterns for the seat moulding being shown in Fig. 106. The backs are cut to shape with a fret-or bow-saw and then carved. Fig. 108 is the simplest in form, having merely an ogee moulding worked on its outer edges and a hollow d forming a marginal line (see section on right-hand side). The oval patera in the centre is made up of two gluings of ¿-in. stuff, the lower having a hollow on its edge and the upper being flatly rounded. If preferred, the patera may be carved out of a single piece J in. thick. The back will require bevelling at the bottom to give it the necessary pitch (see Fig. 100). The back shown in Fig. 107 is more elaborate, and requires greater skill in carving. The quirks e are first cut with a parting tool—that is, a tool of a V-shape—and the round and hollow sections afterwards carved with gouges and chisels, the centre shield, | in. thick, being glued on as in Fig. 108. The design given in Fig. 109 is executed in the same manner as that in Fig. 107, the shield in this also being f in. thick. The enlarged patterns of legs shown by Figs. 110 and 111 are suitable for any of the backs; the turned members f (Fig. Ill) may be carved, and the shafts fluted or reeded as at 6. The chairs should be finished off with french polish.
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